# Equations Types of Reactions. Four major classes  Synthesis  Decomposition  Single Replacement  Double Replacement.

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Equations Types of Reactions

Four major classes  Synthesis  Decomposition  Single Replacement  Double Replacement

Synthesis A marriage of two substances (reactants) to form one new substance (product) A + B  AB The reactants can either be elements or compounds. The product is always one compound. Example: C + O 2  CO 2

Decomposition Opposite of synthesis A divorce of one substance (reactant) to form two or more simpler substances (products) AB  A + B The reactant is always one compound. The products can either be elements or compounds. Example: 2 HgO  2 Hg + O 2

Single Replacement One element takes the place of another in a compound The element can replace the first part of a compound, or it can replace the last part of a compound. A + BC  B + AC (cationic)

Single Replacement, cont D + BC  C + BD (anionic) Element + compound  element + compound 7 elements are diatomic: N 2, H 2, Cl 2, O 2, Br 2, F 2, I 2 Example: Zn + 2 HCl  ZnCl 2 + H 2

Double Replacement The positive and negative portions of two compounds switch places. Compound + compound  compound + compound AB + CD  AD + CB Example: HCl + KOH  HOH + KCl

Combustion Reactions  Two types of Combustion Reactions: 1. Complete Combustion C x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Always involves a hydrocarbon fuel source and oxygen as reactants, and carbon dioxide and water as products. Occurs when oxygen levels are high.

Combustion Reactions  2. Incomplete Combustion C x H y + O 2 CO + H 2 O Always involves a hydrocarbon fuel source and oxygen as reactants, and carbon monoxide and water as products. Occurs when oxygen levels are insufficient to support combustion.

COMBUSTION: 1. complete C x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 2. incomplete C x H y + O 2 CO + H 2 O  When the reaction description includes the terms combusts, burns, oxidizes, or reacts with air, add oxygen as a reactant.  Determine whether the reaction is complete or incomplete combustion; then write the products.  Balance the carbons.  Balance the hydrogens.  Balance the oxygens.

COMBUSTION: 1. complete C x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 2. incomplete C x H y + O 2 CO + H 2 O  A propane (C 3 H 8 ) grill is lit on the outside deck.  C 3 H 8 + O 2 + H 2 O

COMBUSTION: 1. complete C x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 2. incomplete C x H y + O 2 CO + H 2 O  A propane (C 3 H 8 ) grill is lit in a closed garage.  C 3 H 8 + O 2 + H 2 O

COMBUSTION: 1. complete C x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 2. incomplete C x H y + O 2 CO + H 2 O  A butane lighter (C 4 H 10 ) burns completely.  C 4 H 10 + O 2 + H 2 O

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