2 -The Coleman Report ( 1929) -The entry of U -The Coleman Report ( 1929) -The entry of U.S into World War The Army Specialized Training Program
3 -American approach to ESL -Leonard Bloomfield (informant-method) -The first English Language Institute by Michigan University (1939 )
4 -The American Council of Learned Societies -The emergence of Audiolingualism
5 APPROACH Theory of language: -Derived from stuctural linguistics APPROACH Theory of language: -Derived from stuctural linguistics. -Language is speech not writing. -Language is a set of habits. -What native speaker says is vital. -Languages are different.
6 Theory of Learning Behaviorism -The study of human behavior Stimulus > Organism > Response Behavior = Reinforcement or no reinforcement/negative reinforcement
7 To apply this theory to language learning: The stimulus: what is thought or presented of the foreign languageThe response: learner’s reaction to the stimulusThe reinforcement: approval and praise of the teacher or friends or self satisfaction
8 Learning principles of Audiolingual Method A process of mechanical habit formationUsing the spoken form of the target language before written form in classroomAnalogy: generalization and discrimination and inductive grammar teachingTeaching words in linguistic and cultural context
9 Design Speech based instruction with objective of oral proficiency Cleaning of some old procedures
10 ObjectivesShort-range objective: accurate pronunciation, listening comprehension, recognition of speech symbols and using symbols in writing.Long-range objective: language as native speaker uses.
11 The Syllabus - Morphlogical, phonological and syntactic key items - Four basic skills are in order of listening, speaking, reading and writing
12 Types of activitiesDrills and dialogues (correct pronunciation, stress, rhytm and intonation)- repetition inflection- replacement restatement- completion transposition- expansion/contruction- integration transformation- restoration rejoinder
13 Learner Roles:Reactive roleLittle control over learning
14 Teacher Role: Dominant and active.. Controlling the process of learning..Varying activities..
15 According to Brooks:Harmonizing four skills in this order: hearing, speaking, reading, writing..Teaching spoken language in dialogue..Teaching some structure and vocabulary..Teaching literary items..Making students response individually or in chorus..Using or not using English..Modelling some language behavior and rewarding students..
16 The role of Instruction materials: Materials are under the control of teacherTape recordersAudiovisual equipmentsLanguage laboratories..
17 ProcedureLittle provision for grammar and talking about the language Target language as the center of instructions Discouragement of translation and the use of native language
18 Brooks’ procedure list: The modelling of all learnings by the teacherThe early and continued training of the ear and tongueThe learniing of structure through the practice of patterns of sound, order and form rather than by explanationSummarizing of the main points of structureShortening of the time spent
19 Minimizing of vocabulary until structures have been learned The study of vocabulary only in contextPractice in translation only as a literary exercise at an advanced level
20 In a typical audiolingual lesson: Hearing the dialogues including basic structuresChanged certain key words by studentsThe selection of certain key structures from the dialogue and practice in chorus, or individuallyImitative writingMore dialogue and drill work
21 The decline of Audiolingualism unable to transfer skills to real communication outside the classroom . boring and unsatisfying.attacked as being invalid in terms of both language theory and learning theory. -Noam Chomsky (cognitive code learning) ‘Language is not a habit structure’.
22 CONCLUSION Mechanistic aspects of language learning and language use. Similarity between Situational Language Teaching And Audiolingulism:Focusing on the basic structures of the target language
23 Difference between Situational Language Teaching and Audiolingualism: -Situational Language Teaching does not have the strong links to linguistics and behavioral psychology that characterize Audiolingulism