6 Social GroupingIn 1948 (right after the end of WWII), the South African government grouped people into 3 groups:BlackNative AfricansWhiteEuropean descendantsColouredMixed race people and Asians
7 A Strict Social Hierarchy Afrikaner MenEnglish MenAfrikaner WomenEnglish WomenOther Europeans/honorary WhitesAsiansColoureds (people of mixed racial heritage)AfricansApartheid was more than just raceIt included genderThere was a strict social hierarchyOnly white men could vote & own propertyBlacks were systematically at a disadvantage
21 Grand Laws of Apartheid THE POPULATION REGISTRATION ACT—grouped every South African into a particular “race” (white, Indian, Coloured, and Black). Only whites could vote. Those lower down on the list had fewer rights.THE MIXED MARRIAGES ACT—made it a crime for any marriage to take place between whites and any other “racial” group. Only 75 marriages between blacks and whites had been recorded before Apartheid began.THE IMMORALITY ACT—made it a crime for any sexual act to be committed between a white person and any other “racial” group. Between , 24,000 people were prosecuted for this crime.THE GROUP AREAS ACT—divided South Africa into different areas where the different “race” groups could live. Of the 3.5 million people who had to leave their homes because of this act, only 2% were white.THE PASS LAWS—made it mandatory for blacks to carry pass books at all times, which allowed them to have permission to be in a white area for a limited amount of time. Without their pass, they were arrested
39 Nelson MandelaWhile in prison, Mandela continued to fight against apartheid. In a 1964 court appearance, he said:“During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”
42 Soweto Uprising1976-Government decided school would be taught in Afrikaan.Protesting to be taught in English.Organize was a peaceful march.Killed students.International community started to take notice.Apartheid begins to feel pressure.June 16, 1976
43 The World’s Reaction1973- U.N. adopted resolutions condemning Apartheid in South Africa.1980s- Countries began boycotting South African goods.A trade embargo was implemented.Apartheid begins to feel pressure.1980-Government decided school would be taught in Afrikans. Protesting to be taught in English. Organize peaceful march. Killed students.Soweto uprising (1973)- Wanted to be taught in English. International community start to take notice. Apartheid begins to feel pressure.