Cellular Respiration: Cellular respiration is the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of ATP for use by all the energy-consuming activities of the cell.
ENERGY: Most of the energy we get comes from the foods we eat. It comes from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats but before you can use this energy it has to be transferred through ATP by Cellular Respiration.
The stages Stage one: –When glucose is converted to pyruvate, and a small amount of ATP and NADH is produced.
Continued Stage two: –When oxygen is present pyruvate and NADH are used to make a large amount of ATP during aerobic respiration. This occurs in the mitochondria of a eukaryotic cell and the membrane of the prokaryotic cell. –When there is no oxygen present pyruvate is converted to lactate or ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Krebs cycle: The Krebs cycle is a series of enzyme assisted reactions Named after Hans Krebs in 1937 Produces electron carriers that temporarily store chemical energy
Krebs Cyle: Step 1 Acetyl-CoA combines with a four- carbon compound, forming a six- carbon compound and releasing coenzyme A.
Krebs Cycle: Step 2 Carbon dioxide, CO2, is released from the six-carbon compound, forming a five-carbon compound. Electrons are transferred to NAD+, making a molecule of NAHD.
Krebs Cycle: Stage 3 Carbon dioxide is released from the five- carbon compound, resulting in a four-carbon compound. A molecule of ATP is made, and a molecule of NADH is also produced.
Krebs Cycle: Part 4 The existing four- carbon compound is converted to a new four- carbon compound. Electrons are transferred to an electron acceptor called FAD, making a molecule of FADH2.
Krebs Cyle: Part 5 The new four-carbon compound that is created is then changed to the same four- carbon compound that started the cycle Anther molecule of NADH is produced too.
Respiration in the absence of oxygen When there is not enough oxygen for aerobic respiration to occur the electron transport chain does not function. This means that the electrons are not recycled.
Fermentation Fermentation is the recycling of NAD+ using an organic hydrogen acceptor
Lactic Acid Fermentation A three carbon pyruvate is converted to a three carbon lactate through lactate acid fermentation. This enables glycolysis to produce ATP as long as the glucose supply lasts during something such as vigorous exercise.
Alcoholic Fermentation The process in which a three carbon pyruvate is broken down into ethanol, a two carbon compound through alcoholic fermentation. First pyruvate is converted to a two carbon compound releasing carbon dioxide. Secon electron are transferred from NAHD to the two carbon compound, producing ethanol.
Electron Transport Chain Also known as the respiratory chain. It is composed of the mitochondrial enzymes that transfer electrons from one complex to another, eventually resulting in the formation of ATP.