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CHAPTER 11 The Age of Imperialism 1. SECTION 1 The Scramble for Africa 2.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 The Age of Imperialism 1. SECTION 1 The Scramble for Africa 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 11 The Age of Imperialism 1

2 SECTION 1 The Scramble for Africa 2

3 Discuss Have you ever tried to dominate someone younger, smaller, or weaker? How did you demonstrate your power? 3

4 Industrialization -> European countries look for more resources and new markets-> imperialism = stronger country taking control of a weaker one 4

5 Africa Hundreds of ethnic groups More than 1,000 different languages Steamboats allow travel into the interior 5

6 The Congo David Livingstone, Scottish missionary, travels into central Africa King Leopold II of Belgium establishes colony – Congo Belgian companies force locals to collect sap from rubber plants 10 million Congolese die 6

7 7

8 Forces Driving Imperialism Empires = symbol of national greatness Racism = one race being superior to another Social Darwinism – people who were fittest for survival became wealthy and successful and were superior to others Missionaries – spread Christianity 8

9 Imperialism in Africa Better guns – Europeans had the Maxim gun Steamships, railroads, and cables allow for quick transportation Malaria drug allows travel into the interior Multiple ethic groups – lack of unity 9

10 The Division of Africa Discovery of diamonds, gold, copper, and tin Berlin Conference – 14 European nations to discuss (instead of fight) how to divide Africa Only Ethiopia and Liberia were not taken over 10

11 South Africa Zulus lose battle against the British Dutch (Boers/Afrikaners) had settled lands in South Africa Great Trek = Boers move north to escape the British Diamonds and gold are discovered Boer War – Dutch lose to British -> form the Union of South Africa 11

12 SECTION 2 Nigeria 12

13 Who attended the Berlin Conference? How did that affect the borders of African countries? 13

14 Management Africans were to adopt European culture Indirect control – local rulers learn European methods of govt. (British) Direct control  Paternalism – provide for their needs/do not give them rights  Assimilation – through French-like institutions (schools, courts) the locals would become more French 14

15 Nigeria 15 Britain gains control after Berlin Conference 250 ethnic groups 3 main ones = Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa-Fulani Use indirect control Igbo and Yoruba resisted (fought back)

16 Resistance 16 Algerians resist for 50 years Maji Maji (magic water) Rebellion in German East Africa – 20 ethnic groups unite  75,000 die

17 Resistance 17 Ethiopians led by Menelik II defeat Italian forces at the Battle of Adwa (1896)

18 Negatives Positives Smallpox Freedom Famines – cash crops instead of subsistence agriculture Thousands die in war Colonial boundaries cut off family members and unite rival tribes Reduce local warfare Some colonies have improve sanitation, schools, hospitals Africans live longer and read more Railroads, dams, and telephone lines are built 18 The Legacy of Colonial Rule

19 SECTION 3 19 Europeans Claim Muslim Lands

20 Ottoman Empire Loses Power 20 Government corruption Nationalist movements (Greece and Serbia)

21 Ottoman Empire Loses Power 21 Strategic location

22 Crimean War 22 Russians want land on Black Sea to gain access to the Mediterranean Ottomans (with the help of Britain and France) defeat the Russians Russians help Slavic people in the Balkans rebel against the Ottomans

23 Egypt 23 Muhammad Ali, ruler of Egypt, modernizes military and economy Peasants are forced to grow cash crops (cotton) Suez Canal, human-made waterway, is built Irrigation and communication projects are expensive Egypt goes into debt and the British occupy Egypt and its canal

24 Persia (Iran) 24 Discovery of oil in 1908 Persia lacks the wealth to develop its own resources Concessions (businesses buy the right to work in a certain area) are granted to Europeans Anglo-Persian Oil Company Riots break out when British are allowed to exports tobacco Russia and Britain take it over

25 25 Russia went to war against the _____________ Empire because they wanted land on the _____________ Sea to gain access to the _____________. Muhammad Ali’s policies were similar to European colonial policies because they both made the peasants grow ____________ crops instead of ______________.

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