2 Electric Charges and Static Electricity Two types of charges are positive and negative. ( )Positive charged particles are called protons, negative charged particles are called electrons and neutral particles are called neutrons. These particles make up the atom (smallest particle of matter)If an object gains electrons, its charge becomes negativeIf an object loses electrons, it charge becomes positive overall.
3 Electric CurrentElectric current is the continuous flow of electric charges (electrons) through a material.Current is measured in amps, amperes, or A using an ammeter.
4 Electric CircuitTo produce electric current, charges must flow continuously from one place to anotherAn electric circuit is a complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow.
5 Features of a CircuitAll electric circuits have the same basic features.First, circuits have devices that are run by electrical energy.Ex: Light Bulb, Radio, ComputerThese devices are also called resistors, because they resist (slow down) the flow of electric current and may be shown as a resistor in a circuit diagram:
6 Features of a CircuitSecond, a circuit has to have a voltage source. Voltage is measured in volts (V ) using a voltmeter. Voltage is the force that pushes the current.Ex: Battery, Generator, Electric Plant
7 Features of a CircuitThird, electric circuits are connected by conducting wires.They allow charges to flow from the voltage source to the device that runs on electric current and back to the energy source
8 Features of a CircuitA switch is often included in a circuit to control the current in the circuit.Using a switch, you can turn a device on or off by closing or opening the circuit.
10 Conductors and Insulators Conductors are materials through which charges can flow easily. The atoms in conductors contain electrons that are loosely bound. Examples: Copper and AluminumInsulators are materials through which charges cannot flow easily. Their electrons are bound tight to their atoms. Examples: Rubber and Plastic
11 ResistanceResistance is the measure of how difficult it is for charges to flow. Resistance is measured in ohms, or omega.There are four factors that determine the resistance in any wire. They are:Materials (conductors have less resistance than insulators)Length (short wires have less resistance than long wires)Diameter (thick wires have less resistance than thin wires)Temperature (cold wires have less resistance than hot wires)
12 Series Circuits Only one path for current to take If one bulb is removed or goes out, all bulbs go outLights become dimmer as more bulbs are added (more resistance)
13 Parallel Circuits There are multiple pathways for current to take If one bulb is removed or goes out, the other bulbs remain litLights remain the same brightness as more bulbs are added (less resistance)
14 Electrical SafetyCircuit Breaker – a safety device that uses an electromagnet to shut off when current gets too highFuse – a safety device that contains a thin strip of metal that melts when current gets too highLightning Rod – a safety device made of a metal rod mounted on the roof of a building to protect the building