Presentation on theme: "ELECTRICITY Chapter 16. Lesson One Vocabulary Electricity- a form of energy produced by moving electrons Electromagnet- a magnet made by coiling a wire."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson One Vocabulary Electricity- a form of energy produced by moving electrons Electromagnet- a magnet made by coiling a wire around a piece of iron and running electric current through the wire
Electricity: Lesson One In an atom, electrons move around the nucleus. Electrons can also move from one atom to another. This movement of electrons produces electricity.
Electricity: Lesson One Electricity- or electric energy, is a form of energy produced by moving electrons. Electricity can produce light energy, sound energy, heat energy, or mechanical energy.
Electricity: Lesson One An electromagnet is a magnet that uses electricity. It is made by coiling wire around a piece of iron. An electric current runs through the wire and onto the iron. Electromagnets are different from regular magnets because they can be turned on and off.
Electricity: Lesson One Electricity makes the fan of a motor move. An electric motor has a coil wire that can spin inside a magnet. When the motor is on, electricity produces a magnetic field in the wire. The coil becomes an electromagnet and spins because its poles are attracted to and repelled by the permanent magnet. This spinning causes the blades of the fan to spin!
Lesson 2 Vocabulary Static electricity- the buildup of charges on an object Electric current- the flow of electrons Current electricity- a kind of kinetic energy that flows as an electric current Conductor- a material that carries electricity Insulator- material that does NOT conduct electricity well
Electricity: Lesson Two Did you ever touch a doorknob and get a shock? If so, you have felt static electricity. Static electricity is the buildup of charges on an object. Most objects have no charge. But when one object rubs up against another, electrons move from one object to the other. The objects then become charged. Opposite charges then attract each other.
Electricity: Lesson 2 When objects with opposite charges get close, electrons jump from one object to the other. The shock you felt when you touched the doorknob was caused by electrons moving. The sparks are called static discharge. The crackling noise is the sound of the sparks.
Electricity: Lesson 2 Lightning is also static discharge. Negative charges collect at the bottom of clouds. When charges jump from the cloud to the ground, you see lightning. Lightning is a dangerous static discharge and can cause a fire.
Electricity: Lesson 2 Static electricity is potential energy but changes to kinetic energy when it discharges. That kinetic energy can then turn into light, heat, or sound energy. Static energy releases energy for just a short amount of time.
Electricity: Lesson 2 For electricity to be useful, there must be a steady source of electricity. Current electricity can provide a steady source of electricity. If electrons have a path to follow, they will keep moving instead of building up a static charge. This movement is called electric current. Electricity that flows in this way is kinetic energy called current electricity.
Electricity: Lesson 2 Electricity can be used for all sorts of appliances in your home. The amount of electric energy an appliance uses is measured in watts. For example: A hair dryer uses 1,600 watts and a clothes washer uses only 400 watts.
Electricity: Lesson 2 Electricity moves easily through conductors. Most metals are good conductors and copper is the metal commonly used for conducting electricity. An insulator does not conduct electricity well. We use insulators to protect people from electric current.
Lesson 3 vocabulary Electric current- the PATH an electric current follows Series circuit- an electric circuit in which the current has only one path to follow Parallel circuit- an electric circuit that has more than one path for the current to follow
Electricity: Lesson 3 An electric circuit is the path that an electric current follows. The circuit needs a source for the current (like a battery). A circuit can also have a switch. When the switch is off, there is a break in the circuit and this stops the flow of the current.
Electricity: Lesson 3 A series circuit is one type of electrical circuit. In a series circuit, the current has only one path to follow. All the parts of the circuit are connected to a single path. If any part of the path is broken, the current stops flowing. If one part of a series circuit stops working, everything in the circuit stops working.
Electricity: Lesson 3 A parallel circuit has more than path to follow. Each part of the circuit has its own path. In a parallel circuit, one part can be turned off, and all the other parts can stay on. For this reason, a parallel circuit is more useful than a series circuit.
Electricity: Lesson 3 Some circuits are simple and others are not. When engineers work on a design for a new machine, they draw a wiring diagram. The diagram uses symbols. Do you know the symbol for battery, switch, and light?