3 An ecosystem where organisms interact. Ecosystems characterized by: Nature of EcosystemsBiosphere is part of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere that contains living organisms.An ecosystem where organisms interact.Ecosystems characterized by:One-Way flow of energy.Cycle of materials from abiotic environment through biotic community.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
4 Biotic Components Autotrophs Require only inorganic nutrients and an outside energy source to produce organic nutrients.ProducersPhotoautotrophsChemoautrophs.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
5 Heterotrophs need a preformed source of organic nutrients. Consumers Herbivores - Feed on plants.Carnivores - Feed on other animals.Omnivores - Feed on plants and animals.Decomposers are heterotrophic bacteria and fungi that break down dead organic matter.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
7 Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling Energy flow occurs because as nutrients pass from one population to another, all the energy content is converted to heat, which dissipates into the environment.Chemicals cycle as organic nutrients are returned to the producers.ExcretionDeathCellular RespirationMader: Biology 8th Ed.
9 Energy FlowFood Web - Interconnecting paths of energy flow describing trophic relationships.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
10 Explains why few carnivores can be supported in a food web. Ecological PyramidsA trophic level is composed of all the organisms that feed at a particular link in a food chain.In general, only about 10% of the energy of one trophic level is available to the next trophic level.Explains why few carnivores can be supported in a food web.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
12 Global Biogeochemical Cycles Chemical cycling may involve:Reservoir - Source normally unavailable to producers.Fossil Fuels - Minerals - SedimentsExchange Pool - Source from which organisms generally take chemicals.Atmosphere - Soil - WaterBiotic Community - Chemicals move along food chains, perhaps never entering a pool.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
13 Fresh water evaporates from bodies of water. Hydrologic CycleFresh water evaporates from bodies of water.Precipitation on land enters the ground, surface waters, or aquifers.Water eventually returns to the oceans.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
15 Atmosphere is an exchange pool for carbon dioxide. Carbon CycleAtmosphere is an exchange pool for carbon dioxide.Fossil fuel combustion has increased the total amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.Transfer RateMader: Biology 8th Ed.
17 Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse gases allow solar radiation to pass through atmosphere but trap heat (infrared radiation) from escaping.Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methaneIf Earth’s temperature rises, more water will evaporate, forming more clouds and setting up a potential positive feedback loop.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
19 Nodules on legume roots. Nitrification - Production of nitrates. Nitrogen CycleAtmospheric nitrogen is fixed by bacteria in order to make it available to plants.Nodules on legume roots.Nitrification - Production of nitrates.Denitrification - Conversion of nitrate to nitrous oxide and nitrogen gas.Balances nitrogen fixation.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
23 Phosphorus does not enter the atmosphere. Sedimentary cycle. Phosphorus CyclePhosphorus does not enter the atmosphere.Sedimentary cycle.Phosphate taken up by producers incorporated into a variety of organic molecules.Can lead to water eutrophication.BiomagnificationMader: Biology 8th Ed.