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Published byMarilyn Ray Modified over 7 years ago
Civilizations of Africa Later World Civilizations
Geography of the African Continent The African continent has many different environments –Bands that have different climates and vegetation Sub-Saharan Africa –Region located south of the Sahara Desert –Camels = transportation
Geography of the African Continent Savanna –Grassland with small trees and bushes –Wealth came from trade Rain Forest –Area that borders the equator –Slash and burn Method used to clearing the forest
Bantu-Speaking People Bantu-speaking people are not an ethnic group –Ethnic groups share the same culture –Bantu-speaking people belong to many ethnic groups –Over 180 million Africans speak a Bantu language
The Bantu on the Move Bantu-speakers were farmers –They moved and settled in small family groups Two Events Responsible for Bantu Move –Iron-making Men could cut trees and farm with iron tools –Trade Networks and Overcrowding Population was too large Bantu-speakers had to adapt to new environments
THE TRADING STATES OF EAST AFRICA Civilizations of Africa
The Trading States of East Africa Trade was an important factor in development of East African kingdoms and states
The Trading States of East Africa The Kingdom of Axum –Present day Ethiopia –Adulis was located on the Red Sea and became the chief trading center of Axum –Monsoon winds helped move trade ships across the Indian Ocean Ivory, slaves, spices, cloth, wine, olive oil
The Trading States of East Africa The Kingdom of Axum –King Ezana Converted to Christianity and made Christianity the official religion of Axum –Conflicts Arise with Muslims Slavery and Ivory Trade Appealed to Portugal for help and won but... –Axum split into several kingdoms
The Trading States of East Africa The Zimbabwe Region –Zimbabwe means “great stone houses” Great Zimbabwe – palace, towers, fort and fences made of stone without using mortar –Matope (leader) All traders had to pay taxes on their goods when they passed through Zimbabwe Developed a feudal system of government with the use of vassals –Portuguese began taking over Zimbabwe while looking for gold
The Trading States of East Africa Trading City States –Arab merchants the most important to the economy Grew wealthy from international trade –Persia – rugs –China – Porcelain –Asia – Silk clothes and jewels –Arabian Peninsula – coffee and fruits Bantu-Speaking Africans and Arabs mixed and intermarried –Swahili – “people of the coast” –Most widely spoken language in East Africa
WEST AFRICAN KINGDOMS Civilizations of Africa
West African Kingdoms Three Important kingdoms in West Africa –Based on Trans-Saharan trade Gold, ivory, slaves, leather goods, cattle, sheep, and jewelry were sent north Salt, cloth, wheat, dried fruit, horses, and metal goods were shipped south –Every time goods were resold they became a little more expensive
West African Kingdoms The Kingdom of Ghana –Located near a huge gold field –Spread of Islam Armies spread Islam among people they conquered Merchants brought scholars who also spread Islam City people converted to Islam but many Africans in farming villages did not convert 1240 Kingdom of Ghana fell and was no more
West African Kingdoms The Kingdom of Mali –Most people were farmers but Mali’s wealth was based on gold and salt trading Kings taxed all imports and exports and the citizens –Kings became Muslim Mansa Musa –60,000 people traveled with him to Mecca –12,000 slaves – 500 carried walking sticks made of gold –80 camels carried 300 pounds of gold each –He had mosques, palaces, and schools –1359 – Mali lost its importance
West African Kingdoms The Kingdom of Songhai –Sunni Ali (leader) set out to conquer more territory to gain control of the salt and gold trade –Askia Muhammad divided the kingdom into provinces managed by governors Collected taxes on goods Attempted to convert everyone to Islam and made Islam principles the basis of social reforms
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