Presentation on theme: "AP Psych Agenda 9.13.10. Hand back and go over test Score the free response Start chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology ▫Experiments ▫Case."— Presentation transcript:
Hand back test MOST of your free response grades were higher than they should have been Start chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology (36 – 71) Homework: 42 – 48, Looking for Causes: Experimental Research. Take notes.
Chapter 2: The Research Enterprise Looking for Laws: The Scientific Approach to Behavior Assumes that events are governed by some lawful order I.Goals of the Scientific Enterprise 1. Measurement and description: need to develop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behavior clearly and precisely. (you cannot study whether women are more sociable than men without knowing how to measure sociability!)
2. Understanding and Prediction: understanding the reasons that cause events. Scientists develop hypotheses (a tentative statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables). - Variables = measurable conditions, events, characteristics or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study)
3. Application and control: apply study results to practical problems in order to better control/deal with the problems. A theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations – allows scientists to go from description to understanding. Scientific theories must be testable.
II. Steps in a Scientific Investigation 1. Formulate a Testable Hypothesis Testable requires a specific and precise hypothesis, with clearly defined variables. Operational definition means the actions that will be used to measure or control a variable. 2.Select the Research Method and Design the Study Experiments, surveys, case studies, naturalistic observations ETC.
Table 2.1 Key Data Collection Techniques in Psychology
Participants, or subjects are the people or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study. 3. Collect the Data Use procedures that ensure empirical observations and measurements 4. Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions Data usually converted to #s Statistically analyzed
5. Report the Findings Submit findings to a scientific journal for publication.
Figure 2.2 Flowchart of steps in a scientific investigation
Advantages to the Scientific Approach 1.Clarity and Precision 2.Intolerance of Error
Comprehension Check 1.What are the three main goals of the scientific enterprise? 2.What are 2 advantages of using the scientific method? 3.List three different methods you could use in conducting a psychological experiment. 4.Give an example of a measurable/testable hypothesis.