Presentation on theme: "AP LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION MS. BUGASCH OCTOBER 1. 2013 “F” DAY Goals 1. AP Term Review 2. To understand rhetoric and the rhetorical situation."— Presentation transcript:
AP LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION MS. BUGASCH OCTOBER 1. 2013 “F” DAY Goals 1. AP Term Review 2. To understand rhetoric and the rhetorical situation
FFW What are some of the techniques by which people use language persuasively? Jot these down in your notebook. Discuss
Definitions: Rhetoric “Rhetoric is the art of dressing up some unimportant matter so as to fool the audience for the time being” Ezra Pound How do you understand this definition of rhetoric? Do you agree with it? Why (not)?
Aristotle’s Rhetoric Aristotle's rhetoric is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion, dating from the 4th century BC. Aristotle The art or study of using language effectively and persuasively. [American Heritage College Dictionary] “Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.” [ Aristotle ]
What is Rhetoric? What is said ( message ) Who is saying it ( speaker ) Who is listening ( audience ) Where / when it is being said ( context, appeals ) Why it is being said ( purpose ) How it is being said ( tone, style )
What is rhetoric? Rhetoric – Using language effectively to persuade, inform, educate, or entertain
What is a Rhetorical Situation? Rhetorical Situation: The circumstances in which you communicate.
What this means… You need to be aware that a rhetorical situation exists every time a person writes or speaks. Writers adapt their writing depending on the purpose and the audience.
What is the Rhetorical Triangle? Shows the relationship between speaker, audience, message, style, purpose, tone Understanding these rhetorical elements makes both writing and analysis much clearer
The Rhetorical Triangle Author/Speaker AudienceTopic/Su bject ToneStyle Purpose/ Message
Rhetorical Triangle: Speaker/Author What do we know about the writer, speaker, artist, designer, or creator? educational background political affiliations Socioeconomic orientation Gender/race/geography – other biographical info Investment in message Biases/hidden agendas Where do we look for information about the author?
Rhetorical Triangle: Audience Audience who is the message intended for? Age, gender, social/cultural group, political affiliation, etc… Where do we look for information about the audience?
Are they friend or foe? (hostile or sympathetic) How will they receive the message? How will they affect tone? style? Who is the intentional audience? Who is the unintentional audience? Over time, does the message/effect of the message change as the audience changes? Rhetorical Triangle: Audience
Rhetorical Triangle: Topic What will you write about? May be broadened or narrowed depending on the length of your writing and your interest Topics should be appropriate to the rhetorical situation you are in
Rhetorical Triangle: Purpose What is the purpose of your text? To inform? To entertain? To call to action? How can you infer the purpose of the text? What elements of the text do you refer to in order to find information about its purpose?
Rhetorical Triangle: The Message What is the main point being made? In other words, what is the writer’s / speaker’s thesis? Look at the message as an argument / position being sold to the audience. What is the author trying to convince the audience of?
Rhetorical Triangle: The Message Consider this when trying to identify the exact message: What is the topic (1-2 words) about which the piece is written? What is the most important aspect or perspective about that topic that the author wants you to understand? What, exactly, does the author want the reader to think/do/feel/say? What is the “no” on the other side of the author’s “yes?” (And vice versa)
Rhetorical Triangle: The Tone Very often, tone words will vary in meaning only in the degree of intensity, in the “positivity” or “negativity.”
The Tone ZealousApatheticReticent Condescending Conciliatory Complimentary RemorsefulResignedNostalgic Self-Deprecating DetachedHaughty SardonicSarcasticIrreverent
Rhetorical Triangle: The Style What strategies does the author employ in order to get his / her message across? These strategies may include: ethos, logos, pathos; organization; diction; syntax; figurative language; grammatical structure; selection of details; imagery
Closure Hand out “What Do Students Need to Know About Rhetoric”
Homework 1. Read “What Do Students Need to Know About Rhetoric” 2. Make flashcards 3. “B-C” Quiz on Thursday