Groups: Vertical Lines Elements in the same group have similar chemical and physical properties!! Why? They have the same number of valence electrons. They will form same kind of ions. Combine the same way
Elements in the same row or period, have same number of energy levels. 11 Na 13 Al 15 P
Lewis Dot Diagram Symbol of the element and dots representing the valence electrons Na ● Ca ● ● Al ● ● ●
Rule of 8 The majority of the elements form ions in order to have 8 electrons on their last energy level. ( they want to be like the noble gases and have their last level complete) Na and Cl Why table salt NaCl exists in nature ?
Hydrogen Forms H +1 ion Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own. Hydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas: H 2 Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg. Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles
Group 1 - Alkali Metals Li to Fr.All have 1 valence electron.All form X 1+ Very reactive metals. Soft metals.
Group 2 - Alkaline Earth Metals Be to Ra All have 2 v.e All form X +3 Several of these elements are important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca)
Transition Metals Elements in the middle Less reactive, harder metals Includes metals used in jewelry and construction. Metals used in alloys
Group 3 - Boron Family Elements in group 13 Aluminum metal was once rare and expensive, not a “disposable metal.”
Group 4 - Carbon Family Contains elements important to life and computers. Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry. Silicon and Germanium are important semiconductors.
Group 5 - Nitrogen Family Elements in group 15 Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere. Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things. Most of the world’s nitrogen is not available to living things. The red stuff on the tip of matches is phosphorus.
Group 6 - Oxygen Family Elements in group 16 Oxygen is necessary for respiration. Many things that stink, contain sulfur (rotten eggs, garlic, skunks,etc.)
Group 7 - Halogens From F to I All have 7 v.e All form X -1 Very reactive, volatile, diatomic, nonmetals Always found combined with other element in nature. Used as disinfectants and to strengthen teeth.