Presentation on theme: "Nutrient Cycles Miss Schwippert. Carbon Cycle Vocab nutrients - chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life. biogeochemical cycles - connects."— Presentation transcript:
Carbon Cycle Vocab nutrients - chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life. biogeochemical cycles - connects life, land, and chemical cycles
Carbon Cycle Questions What is the main E source for life on earth? sunlight What is the name of the process where autotrophs produce E in the absence of light? chemosynthesis What is the general formula for photosynthesis in plants? carbon dioxide and water with light E yields carbohydrates and oxygen What type of E is stored in chemical bonds and used for chemosynthesis? chemical E E flow through the biosphere is one-way, however matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.
Carbone Cycle Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue 4 main types of process move carbon through its cycle: – 1. biological - take up and release carbon and oxygen photosynthesis respiration decomposition
2. geochemical - release CO 2 into the atmosphere and oceans – Erosion – volcanic activity 3. mixed biogeochemical - store carbon underground – decomposition of dead organisms and their conversions into fossil fuels 4. human activities - release CO 2 into the atmosphere – Mining – cutting and burning forests – burning fossil fuels
Water Cycle Vocab Biogeochemical cycle - connect biological, geological, and chemical cycles in the biosphere evaporation - process where water changes from a liquid to a gas transpiration - when water evaporates from the leaves of plants
Water Cycle Questions How are evaporation and transpiration related? – evaporation is part of the process of transpiration What are the 2 ways that water can enter the atmosphere? – evaporation and transpiration What process moves water through the cycle from the air to the ground? – precipitation What are two routes in which water might make its way to the ocean? – runoff and seepage into ground water & eventual flow into the ocean What process in humans also releases water vapor into the air? – respiration
Water Cycle All living things require water to survive. Energy flows in one direction in an ecosystem, but matter is recycled within and between ecosystems. Biological systems do not use up matter, they transform it. This is called the Law of Conservation of Matter. Biogeochemical cycles pass the same molecules around & around again within the biosphere.
Water Cycle All earth’s water comes from: 1. ocean 2. atmosphere 3. land The process where water moves from a liquid to a gas is called evaporation. Transpiration is when water evaporates from the leaves of plants. In the atmosphere, the water vapor condenses and forms clouds. When the water droplets become big enough, water returns to the earth’s surface in the form of precipitation - rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
Nitrogen Cycle Vocab nitrogen fixation - converting nitrogen gas into ammonia by bacteria that live in the soil denitrification - converting nitrates into nitrogen gas by bacteria that live in the soil primary productivity - the rate at which organic matter is created by producers
Nitrogen Cycle Questions What are the main nitrogen containing nutrients in the biosphere? – ammonia, nitrate, nitrite What controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem? – the amount of available nutrients What is a limiting nutrient? – a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly Why do algal blooms occur? – when more nutrients are available and producers can produce more than consumers can eat What does “equilibrium” of an ecosystem mean? – equilibrium = balance
Nitrogen Cycle All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids. Amino acids are used to build proteins. Nitrogen gas makes up 78% of the earth’s atmosphere. Nitrogen containing substances are found in the wastes produced by many organisms and in dead and decaying organic matter.
Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen also exists in other forms in the oceans and other large bodies of water. In nitrogen fixation, bacteria that live in the soil convert nitrogen gas into ammonia. Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in the process of denitrification.