Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 33 IV Cycles of Matter. Slide 2 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cycles of Matter How does matter move among the living and nonliving."— Presentation transcript:
Slide 2 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cycles of Matter How does matter move among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem?
Slide 3 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Recycling in the Biosphere Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently. Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.
Slide 4 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biogeochemical Cycles: 1. The Water Cycle All living things require water to survive. The Water Cycle
Slide 5 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Water Cycle Water moves between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.
Slide 7 of 33 Nutrient Cycles How are nutrients important in living systems?
Slide 8 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles 2. Nutrient Cycles All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life are its nutrients. Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. Similar to water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles.
Slide 9 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles A. The Carbon Cycle Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue. Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygen. Geochemical processes, such as erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans.
Slide 10 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles CO 2 in Atmosphere Photosynthesis feeding Respiration Deposition Carbonate Rocks Deposition Decomposition Fossil fuel Volcanic activity Uplift Erosion Respiration Human activity CO 2 in Ocean Photosynthesis
Slide 11 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles B. The Nitrogen Cycle All organisms require nitrogen to make proteins. Although nitrogen gas is the most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth, only certain types of bacteria can use this form directly. Such bacteria live in the soil and on the roots of plants called legumes. They convert nitrogen gas into ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation.
Slide 12 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles Bacterial nitrogen fixation N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 Synthetic fertilizer manufacturer Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Decomposition excretion Atmospheric nitrogen fixation Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Decomposition Decomposition excretion NO 3 and NO 2
Slide 13 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in a process called denitrification. This process releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again. Nutrient Cycles
Slide 14 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nutrient Cycles C. The Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus is essential to organisms because it helps forms important molecules like DNA and RNA. Most phosphorus exists in the form of inorganic phosphate. Inorganic phosphate is released into the soil and water as sediments wear down.
Slide 15 of 33 Organic phosphate moves through the food web and to the rest of the ecosystem. Nutrient Cycles Ocean Land Organisms Sediments
Slide 16 of 33 Nutrient Limitation V Nutrient Limitation The primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate at which organic matter is created by producers. One factor that controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem is the amount of available nutrients.
Slide 17 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organism's growth. When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly, this substance is called a limiting nutrient. Nutrient Limitation
Slide 18 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient—such as runoff from heavily fertilized fields—the result is often an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers. This result is called an algal bloom. Algal blooms can disrupt the equilibrium of an ecosystem. Nutrient Limitation
End Show - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 19 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3 Transpiration is part of the water cycle. carbon cycle. nitrogen cycle. phosphorus cycle.
3–3 Carbon is found in the atmosphere in the form of carbohydrates. carbon dioxide. calcium carbonate. ammonia.
3–3 Biologists describe nutrients as moving through cycles because the substances start as simple organic forms that plants need. provide “building blocks” and energy that organisms need. are passed between organisms and the environment and then back to organisms. are needed by organisms to carry out life processes.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3 The only organisms that can convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form useful to living things are nitrogen-fixing plants. bacteria. detritivores. animals.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–3 When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, the result is runoff. algal death. algal bloom. less primary productivity.