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Chapter 5 Part 1: The Native Americans Government policy and conflict.

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1 Chapter 5 Part 1: The Native Americans Government policy and conflict

2 Government Policy since 1834 The Great Plains was considered one large Indian Reservation Native Americans were pushed west of the Mississippi since Jefferson’s Presidency The Trail of Tears During Jackson’s term 20,000 Native Americans from Georgia to Indian Territory in Oklahoma

3 The Westward Movement Mining was the first economic boom of the West Cattle Ranching was the second economic boom Farmers The Railroad Government land policy Government Indian policy

4 The Massacre at Sand Creek Aka Chivington Massacre 1864 Evans, territorial Governor in Colorado, wanted to buy Indian land from the Cheyenne Indians at the Sand Creek Reservation and make it available to white settlers, They Cheyenne would not sell

5 Chivington Was sent with troops to remove the Indians They attacked the sleeping Cheyenne and Arapaho 150 were killed. Most women and children Atrocities

6 New Indian Policy 1851 Thomas Fitzpatrick, a U.S. Indian Agent, made treaties with a great many tribes who agreed to remain within their own hunting grounds.

7 The Fetterman Massacre The Bozeman Trail ran through the hunting grounds of the Sioux Tribe White settlers continued to use the Bozeman Trail Red Cloud protested to the American government but there was no reesponse

8 In 1866 Crazy Horse ambushed 80 soldiers led by Captain Fetterman. Was called the Fetterman Massacre

9 The Treaty of Fort Laramie After several more skirmishes the government agreed to close the Bozeman trail to homesteaders Many (but not all) of the Sioux agreed to live on reservations but believed that they could still enjoy their traditional hunting Grounds

10 Continued Indian raids And continuing gold rushes bringing more to the West The U.S. Government made war on all Natives not on reservations

11 Gold was found in the Black Hills Reservation Indians protested at the arrival of the miners Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho were there led by Sittling Bull, Crazy Horse and others The U.S. tried and failed to keep settlers off of the reservation

12 Custer’s Last Stand Aka The Battle of Little Bighorn 1876 in South Dakota Custer with 264 soldiers attacked but as many as 7,000 warriars were ready Within an hour all but one of Custer’s men were killed A scout was allowed to escape so he could tell the world what happened

13 The New Policy: Assimilation The Dawes Act: 1887 The U.S. government would no longer deal with tribes Heads of households were given 160 acres of land Single adults were given 80 acres

14 The Dawes Act Natives were expected to live in family groups and farm the land like homesteaders They would get the deed to the land after 25 years (to prevent homesteaders from cheating the natives out of the land) A big failure. The natives just wandered away

15 The government believed That 25 years was too long for the Natives to wait so… In 1906 the Burke Act was passed This gave the deed to the land sooner if Natives seemed to be trying to assimilate Didn’t work

16 The Buffalo In the meantine the buffalo was nearing extinction Buffalo were used to feed Chinese railroad workers Then buffalo hunting and rugs were an eastern craze Natives used all parts of buffalo…no waste

17 The Buffalo In 1800…65 million buffalo on the Plains By 1865…1000 left By 1900 one herd left at Yellowstone

18 More Conflict The Sioux were poverty-striken and desperate Were convinced by a Paiute Prophet that if they followed a certain ritual called Ghost Dance that all of their lands would be restored to them Word spread quickly

19 The Ghost Dance 25,000 Sioux on the Dakota Reservation practiced the ritual The U.S. Army was frightened and acted In 1890 40 Native American police were sent to arrest Sittling Bull Violence broke out and Sitting Bull was killed

20 The rest of the Sioux Were led away by Big Foot The Sioux froze and starved 350 Souix were rounded up by a part of Custer’s old regiment and marched to a camp at Wounded Knee, South Dakota

21 They were made to surrender their weapons One weapon accidently discharged and the soldiers fired into the crowd They used a cannon! 300+ unarmed natives were killed including many women and children

22 It was called The Battle of Wounded Knee 1890

23 Terms for Chaoter 5 Part 1 Great Plains Treaty of Fort Laramie Sitting Bull George Custer Assimilation Dawes Act Wounded Knee

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