PROTOZOAN -BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONS Make clear observations – eventually you want to say trophic level What magnification are you on? What does it look like? Movement? http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/ponddip/www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/ponddip
EXAMPLE OF OBSERVATIONS TABLE Organism & Abundance AppearanceBehaviors Observed Ecological Classification Only one in sample Worm? Large Flat Worm, Brown, 5 mm long; lobolar sections Glided at a quick and steady pace, extended/elongated when moving, bumped head repeatedly against green material Heterotrophic, consumer 4-6 samples Spirogyra? Long green algae, spiral pattern within Immobile, multiple protists gathered around it Autotrophic - photosynthetic Table of Observations: Storm drain water
RULES FOR BIOLOGICAL DRAWINGS 1. Draw what you see, not what you think should be there. 2. Use pencil for diagrams, labels and titles. 3. Use clean-cut lines for diagrams (do not sketch). All drawings are to be done on unlined paper, with one drawing per sheet of 81/2 X 11 paper. 4. Drawing should be large enough to show all parts without crowding. You have a whole sheet of paper, don’t be afraid to use it. When doing detailed diagrams of cells and their contents, the cells should measure at least 5cm in length. 5. Keep your drawings to the left of the page. Put all the labels to the right of the diagram. All labels should be printed. Use a ruler for label lines and make sure you do not cross your label lines. 6. Do not shade your drawing. If you wish to indicate a darker area, use dots. Indicate the thickness of a plant cell wall by using two lines.
RULES FOR BIOLOGICAL DRAWINGS 7. When one representative cell of a tissue is to be drawn, make sure you include the cell boundaries of the other cells that border it. 8. Include a printed and underlined title immediately above the drawing in the centre of the page. The scaled/drawing magnification follows the title in parentheses [e.g. BONE CELL (300X)] Following this, include the total magnification – “as viewed under 40X” 9. Following the title, indicate whether the slide is wet mount, dry mount, or a prepared slide. Also indicate whether any stain was used in the preparation of the slide. This will be indicated on the slide if it is prepared. 10. 1 cm = 10,000 μm *Remember this!!!* 11. Include your name and the date in the top right hand corner. 12. Move the slide around to get a good overview of the specimen, don’t just concentrate on one part. Also view the slide under different magnifications and light amounts.
FORMULAS & CALCULATIONS MagnificationField of View (µm) Low (40x)4500 Medium (100x)1800 High (400x) 450 Finding the estimated size of the cell Estimated Size = Field of View Fit number Fit number = how many times that cell/specimen fits across the field of view Finding the scaled magnification Scaled magnification = Diagram Size Estimated size
Scaled magnification can also be called drawing magnification. All your units need to be in micrometers, shown as µm You need to show the formulas and your work on the bottom of your drawing. The estimated size goes along the left margin, and the scaled magnification/drawing magnification goes in your title.
EXAMPLES OF SIZES OF ORGANISMS Table 2. Plankton Size Phytoplankton: free-floating autotrophs & Holoplankton: organisms that spend their entire life spans as plankton. Size Diatoms 5 um to 1000 um Dinoflagellates and Zooxanthellae50 um to 200 um Zooplankton: free-floating heterotrophs & Holoplankton: organisms that spend their entire life spans as plankton. Size Copepod1 to 10 mm Foraminiferans100 um to 1000 um Radiolarians100 um to 1000 um Dinoflagellates50 um to 200 um