Presentation on theme: "Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism. Confucianism 551 – 479 B.C.E. Lived during the time of Buddha in India. Became a teacher & book editor, not a religious."— Presentation transcript:
Confucianism 551 – 479 B.C.E. Lived during the time of Buddha in India. Became a teacher & book editor, not a religious leader. Stressed personal virtue, moderation, wisdom and respect as the keys to peace and harmony
Major Confucian Principals Cultural traditions and rituals will restore balance and order to society. Humanity, goodwill, reciprocity, empathy, and righteousness. Education is the key to social order. Everyone has the right to get an education. Filial Piety (respect your elders!)
The Analects – “Conversation” Knowing what he knows and what he doesn’t know, is characteristic of the person who knows. Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake. The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others. To go too far is as wrong as to fall short. Single most important Confucian text
Social Relationships: A Comparison Hinduism - India 1.Brahmin 2.Kshatriya 3.Vaishya 4.Shudra Untouchable Confucianism - China 1.Scholar-Gentry 2.Peasants 3.Artisans 4.Merchants Soldiers Imperial Nobility Slaves
Confucius & the Han Dynasty The Han Emperor saw the usefulness of Confucianism in government, so: – Schools were created to teach & test Confucian ideals. – Only the best & brightest students were offered rich government jobs as bureaucrats.
Legalism, the Philosophy of Power Legalism stated that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom. The ruler, therefore, “cracks his whip” on the backs of his subjects!
Legalist Principals 1. Human nature is naturally selfish. 2. Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged. 3. Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality. 4. The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand. 5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power.
In a Legalist State… The army controls the government, fighting to defend & expand borders. People farm to feed the population & provide for the army to stay at war. Education is minimal, since brains aren’t necessary to follow the rules. Those who follow rules well are rewarded, and those that don’t are punished (often tortured or executed).
Lao–Tzu is considered to be the founder of Taoism. Major Principals: Man is sad because he lives within social laws & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature. “Let nature take its course.” “The art of doing nothing.” “Go with the flow!”
Taoism Tao (pronounced Dow) means The Way (to happiness). Taoism is a philosophy, a way of looking at life and a way of thinking about things. It embraces China’s tradition of belief in nature’s harmony and mystery. Taoists believe we need to understand our own inner nature. To escape the “traps” of life, one must : Reject formal knowledge and learning. Rely on the senses and instincts. Discover the nature and “rhythm” of the universe. Ignore political and social laws.
Core Philosophies Confucians stress filial piety, tradition, education, and the development of social relationships. Legalists emphasize strict laws and severe punishments to teach people obedience to the needs of government. Daoists will wonder what all the fuss is about, since they prefer to avoid politics in their pursuit of harmony with nature.
HW Activity #1 Using each of the 3 philosophies, respond to these scenarios: 1.You know that you are failing a class. If your parents find out, you will be in trouble. How do you handle this situation? 2.A student has just found $20 in the hall. What should they do? 3.A student sees an opportunity to take something they have really wanted, without being caught. How should that student act?
HW Activity #2 Ask an older family member one or more of the following questions. Try to determine if their answers are more Taoist, Confucian, or Legalist. If a homeless person looked you in the eye and asked for help, how would you respond? If you witnessed a hit-and-run accident, what would you do? Finish this sentence: I believe that people are by their very nature ___________. Is education a requirement, or a right?