What is a comma? A comma is a visual pause for the reader. A comma can be used for many reasons.
When do you use a comma? 1. To separate items in a series a. Words in a series I went to the store to get milk, eggs and soda. b. Phrases in a series I need to take my medicine before work, during lunch and after work. c. Clauses in a series In our band, Jeff sings, Mike plays the guitar and Chris plays the drums.
When do you use a comma? 2. To separate two or more adjectives that modify the same noun Shay thinks Dotson is tall, dark and handsome.
When do you use a comma? 3. Before conjunctions (FANBOYS) when they join independent clauses –For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So I ate breakfast before school, but I was still hungry before 2nd period. Make sure you use a conjunction to combine the two independent clauses or else it’s called a COMMA SPLICE. I ate breakfast before school, I was still hungry before 2 nd period. WRONG!
When do you use a comma? (cont’d) 4. Use commas to set off clauses which are nonessential –A nonessential clause is a clause that adds information about the subject that is descriptive, but not necessary. J.D. Salinger, who wrote Catcher in the Rye, is a notorious recluse.
When do you use a comma? (cont’d) 5. To set off participial phrases –A participial phrase is a phrase where a verb is used as an adjective. Jay-Z, knowing that “Dirt Off Your Shoulder” was the crowd favorite, waited until the encore to perform his biggest hit. “knowing that ‘Dirt Off Your Shoulder’ was the crowd favorite” describes Jay-Z.
When do you use a comma? (cont’d) 6. Use commas after certain introductory elements a. Use after well, yes, no, and why when they begin a sentence. Yes, my favorite team is the Cubs. Well, I like math, but English is by far the best. b. Use after introductory participial phrases. Driving home from school, I had an epiphany. c. Use after a long opener that begins with any “ABBI SAW A WUWU” As, before, because, if, since, after, when, although, while, unless, whenever, until Because you loaned me money for lunch yesterday, I will loan you some for today. If you are ever lost while driving, pull into a gas station.
ABBI SAW A WUWU As Before Because If, If only Since After While Although When, Whenever Unless Whether Until
When do you use a comma? (cont’d) 7. Use commas to set off words of direct address, such as names and titles. –Ryo, can you lend me a pencil? - Mr. Klein, can I turn this in tomorrow? NO!!!!!
Other Comma Rules 8. To set off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence “Come in,” the boss said. Mary said, “I don’t want to.”
Other Comma Rules 9. Between the day of the month and the year, and, in a sentence, after the year Steve was born in New York on March 5, 1990, and moved here last year.
Other Comma Rules 10. In the salutation of a personal letter Dear Grandma, Sincerely,
What is a Semicolon????? A semicolon is a punctuation mark that connects independent clauses when they are not connected by a conjunction (FANBOYS). ;
When do you use a semicolon? You use a semicolon when you are connecting two independent clauses without a conjunction. –The students entered the room; class started when the bell rang. –Spring break is a few weeks away; I am going on a trip with my family.
When do you use a semicolon? Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by the following words: Accordingly Hence However Indeed Moreover Thus That is Besides Also Therefore Still Otherwise In fact For example Furthermore Consequently Similarly Instead Nevertheless For instance
Examples of Semicolon Use The football team won; however, the team is still in second place in the conference. You have to water the flowers every day; otherwise, they will wilt and die. Rachel loves to listen to Ludacris; in fact, she has all of his albums.