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Published byChristiana Gallagher Modified over 3 years ago

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The continuous flow of electrons is current. Measured in amps (A). Two types of current 1. Direct current (DC) – electrons flow in only one direction. 2. Alternating Current (AC) – flow of electrons keeps switching directions.

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Electrons flow due to a difference in electrical potential energy (EPE) of charges ◦ Charges flow from higher potential energy to lower potential energy ◦ Potential difference, or Voltage, is the difference of EPE between two places in an electric field.

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Electrons flow due to a difference in electrical potential energy (EPE) of charges ◦ Voltage is measured in volts (V), which are joules per coulomb. ◦ The greater the voltage, the greater the “push” on the electrons.

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As electrons flow through materials, they collide with other electrons and ions, losing energy and slowing current. This opposition to flow of electricity in a materials is its resistance. Anything that electricity flows through has resistance.

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Measured in ohms (Ω). Resistance of a material is affected by its: 1. Thickness: thicker = less resistance 2. Length: Longer = more resistance 3. Temperature: Warmer = more resistance

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Resistance, current and voltage are related (Ohm’s Law): I = current, V = Voltage, R = resistance IR V

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Example 1) What is the resistance of a headlight that draws 3.0 A of current from a 12 V battery? Example 2) What is the voltage needed to produce a current of 3 amps through 3 Ω? Example 3) What is the current running through 6 V battery connected to a light bulb with a resistance of 1.5 Ω?

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Conductors have low resistance and insulators have high resistance. Semiconductors will conduct electricity in certain situations Superconductor is a material that has almost zero resistance when cooled to low temperatures.

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