Presentation on theme: "From the Shang to the Silk Road! China A River Civilization."— Presentation transcript:
From the Shang to the Silk Road! China A River Civilization
Geography Flooding was good for the soil but bad that it killed many people. Soil had a yellowish color to it. Only 1/10 of the land could be farmed because most of the country was mostly desert and mountains. Many settled along the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang).
Social Classes 90% of Ancient China were farmers. Merchants Peasant Farmers Aristocrats Landowning Aristocrats - very wealthy; fathers divided their land and gave to their sons. Farmers rented land and payed the land owners with crops Even though many merchants became rich, they were still looked down upon by Aristocrats and farmers.
Big Families People had big families to help with the farming. more crops = more bling! Filial Piety-children had to respect their parents and older relatives. Oldest Male in charge (the son could be in charge of his mother, and mother had to obey him). Family members placed the needs and desires of the head of the family before their own! Men were respected, they farmed, attended school, ran government and fought wars. Women tended to the house and raised children.
Confucianism 551-479 B.C. Confucius - China’s 1st great thinker/teacher who wanted to end China’s problems and bring peace. He believed: That people needed to have a “sense of duty.” Someone that would put the needs of their family and community above their own. Honor your promises, educate yourself, avoid bad people. All men had a talent to govern and it was their duty to participate in government. If everyone performed their duty, then society as a whole would do well.
Daoism 500 BC - 300 BC Created by Laozi, “The Old Master” Loazi believed: People should give up worldly desires in favor of nature and the Dao. Give up on concerns about the world, seek inner peace and live with nature. Historians are not sure if Laozi was real or not! What is the Dao? - It is the force that guides all things!
Legalism 200s BC Created by Hanfeizi He believed: That humans are naturally evil! People need harsh laws and stiff punishments to force them to do their duties. A strong leader is needed to rule government.
Chinese Dynasties Zhou Dynasty - Created by Wu Wang. An aristocrat who led a rebellion against the Shang. - Longest dynasty. 800 years! - Set up bureaucracy of aristocrats. In charge of smaller territories. - Believed the king was the link between heaven and earth. Had to make the gods happy! - Ruled through the Mandate of Heaven. Shang Dynasty - Ruled most of the Huang He Valley. - 2 Social Classes: The king and his family, then everyone else! - Kings wanted to keep the gods happy, and the spirits of the valleys and mountains satisfied. - Wrote on oracle bones; cracked bone & it showed answers - Big gap between rich and poor.
Dynasty’s Qin Shihuangdi - Strict ruler practiced legalism. - Increased his own power and took away power from aristocrats. - Unified China. Created one currency, built more roads, and built the first Great Wall. - Dynasty was overthrown after his death. Han - Founded by Liu Bang. - Population went from 20 to 60 million - Civil Service Exam - had to pass to fill government position, only wealthy people passed because only ones educated. - Inventions include: paper, rubber, steel, sailboat rudders, & acupuncture. - Sent explorers all over world. Was the basis for founding the Silk Road.
Great Wall of China -1500 miles long. First original structure was not the wall that you know today. Built for protection from Nomadic tribes from Mongolia and to prevent goods from being smuggled out. This is the World’s longest human structure!
Silk Road - 4000 miles long, it was a VERY important trade route. They traded spices, porcelain, silk, and tea. Very dangerous and expensive to trade goods because you had to pay each kingdom to cross their land.