Presentation on theme: "Articles of Confederation Chapter 5 Section 1. Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals. Describe the structure and powers."— Presentation transcript:
Explain how the states’ new constitutions reflected republican ideals. Describe the structure and powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation. Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and governance of western lands. List the main weaknesses of the Articles. Objectives
State Constitutions Patriots disagreed over the design of these republics, especially over how much power to give the common people. Although state constitutions varied, each provided for a republic in which people voted for their representatives.
Democratic Patriots They favored: –Weak state governments with most of their powers in a popularly elected legislature –Unicameral legislature, or one having single house, with either a weak governor or no governor at all –A large House of Representatives with small districts so that the people had more control
Conservatives They favored: –A governor with broad powers –Bicameral legislature, with two houses –An upper house or senate made up of wealthy, well-educated gentlemen who would balance a lower house elected by the common people
Democratic states like Pennsylvania allowed all male taxpayers over age 21 to vote. Conservative states required property ownership for voting. None of the states gave the vote to women or to slaves. Debate Over Voting Rights
Most new state constitutions guaranteed freedom of religion. Previously, colonies collected taxes for religious institutions. Now, religious freedom and pluralism became the norm. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, written by Thomas Jefferson set the example. It allowed for religious liberty free of state influence. All men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of Religion. —Thomas Jefferson Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, 1786
This first national constitution created a loose confederation, or league of states, in 1777. Congress drafted the Articles of Confederation under the leadership of John Dickinson of Pennsylvania. Congress’s power was limited to prevent the problems experienced under Britain. The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation was created by the Continental Congress.
Congress implemented and enforced laws. Executive power was shared, no one leader. One state = one vote in Congress. Major issues, like declaring war, required nine states. Amendments (Changes) required the agreement of all 13 states. Limits of the Articles
There was also no federal court system. Congress couldCongress could not Declare war or conduct foreign policy Raise money through taxes Administer relations with Indian nations Regulate commerce between states or states and foreign nations
The Articles created a method to settle and govern the Northwest Territory.
Surveyors divided the territory into a grid of lines north to south and east to west, establishing hundreds of townships. Each township was subdivided into sections of one square mile (640 acre), to sell at $1 each. The Land Ordinance of 1785 established a method to distribute public land.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set up a system to govern territories and create states. Congress established a territorial government and appointed a governor. Settlers were guaranteed freedom of religion, trial by jury, and rights of common law. Once there were 5,000 men, an assembly could be elected. The appointed governor retained veto power. Once there were 60,000 residents, a territory could apply for statehood.
The Northwest Ordinance Barred slavery Required a republican constitution Promised settlers basic freedoms Ignored the rights of Native Americans Resulted in five new states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota
Disrespected Britain kept soldiers in frontier forts located in the Northwest Territory. Spain forbade American trade with New Orleans. Britain kept soldiers in frontier forts located in the Northwest Territory.
Growing problems led to calls for a revision of the Articles of Confederation. The nation’s debt was mounting. The economic depression was deepening as debts, bankruptcies, and foreclosures grew.
Shays’ Rebellion demonstrated the weakness of the national government. In 1787, Daniel Shays led about 1,000 farmers in a raid on a federal arsenal in Massachusetts to protest taxes and farm foreclosures. The revolt failed, but many people saw the unrest as a sign that a stronger central government was needed.