Presentation on theme: "Creating the Constitution Chapter 2, Section 4 An assembly of “demi-gods.” – Thomas Jefferson."— Presentation transcript:
Creating the Constitution Chapter 2, Section 4 An assembly of “demi-gods.” – Thomas Jefferson
Question of the Day Think of a recent conflict that you have read or heard about involving the local or National Government. What did they do or could they do to resolve the conflict? In this section, you will learn how compromises saved the Constitution.
Objectives I dentify the framers of the Constitution and discuss how the delegates organized the proceedings at the Philadelphia Convention. Compare and contrast the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan for a new Constitution Summarize the major compromises that the delegates agreed to make and the effects of those compromises Describe the delegates' reactions to the Constitution as they completed their work.
Constitutional Convention Philadelphia – May 25, 1787 Purpose: To build a new government by writing a Constitution (to replace Articles) Need: A stronger national government composed of a legislature, executive, and judiciary 12 of 13 states sent delegates (representatives) to convention (no Rhode Island) Independence Hall Philadelphia, PA
Framers Framers – group of delegates who attended Convention Characteristics of the 55 delegates: Many fought in Revolution 39 members of Continental Congress or Confederation 7 state governors 8 signed Declaration of Independence 31 had attended college (rare) Men of knowledge, experience, wealth, prestige 2 would become Presidents, 1 Vice-President Average age = 42 (half in 30s)
Organization & Procedures George Washington – elected President of convention One vote for each state Majority needed to pass any proposal Rule of secrecy James Madison – floor leader Contributed more to document than any other delegate “Father of the Constitution” James Madison “Father of the Constitution” George Washington
Virginia Plan Three branches of government (executive, judicial, legislative) Bicameral (two house) legislature Representation in each house based on state’s population or amount of $ it gave to support central gov’t House of Representatives – popularly elected in each state Senate – chosen by House from lists of persons nominated by State legislatures
Virginia Plan (cont.) Congress would choose a “National Executive” and “National Judiciary” Could veto acts by Congress, but Congress could override National Executive – authority to enforce National laws National Judiciary – made up of one or more supreme courts and inferior courts Purpose: national gov’t with expanded powers AND power to enforce decisions Small states opposed – thought plan was too radical
New Jersey Plan Congress – unicameral Each state equally represented in Congress “Federal Executive” more than one President Chosen by Congress Could be removed at request of majority of States’ governors “Federal Judiciary” single, supreme court Chosen by Executive
The Big Debate How should the States be represented in Congress? By population or financial contribution? (Virginia Plan) Equal for each state? (NJ Plan)
Constitutional Compromises The Connecticut Compromise Delegates agreed on a bicameral Congress, Senate segment with equal representation for States, and the House with representation proportionate to the States' populations. "The Great Compromise" The Three-Fifths Compromise The framers decided to count slaves as three-fifths of a person when determining the population of a State. States taxed 3/5 per slave to appease north. The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise Congress was forbidden from taxing exported goods, and was not allowed to act on the slave trade for 20 years. They were allowed to regulate trade.
A Bundle of Compromises Many differences of opinions (12 different states) All Agreed on…. A new national, federal gov’t had to be created Representative gov’t Limited gov’t Separation of powers Checks and balances Approved by delegates and signed on Sept. 17, 1787
Interesting Facts Alexander Hamilton was Killed by Aaron Burr in a duel in 1804 Rhode Island boycotted the Convention Thomas Jefferson was in Paris as minister John Hancock and Patrick Henry not there “We the People” was added later Jacob Shallus was given 2 days to pen 4,543 words
Section 4 Review 1. The first national government for the United States was (a) the First Continental Congress. (b) the Second Continental Congress. (c) the Articles of Confederation. (d) the Constitution of the United States. 2. The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia involved delegates from each of the following states except (a) Maryland. (b) Rhode Island. (c) New York. (d) Virginia.
Assignment Write each of the following on one side of an index card: Magna Carta, Petition of Right, Bill of Rights, Albany Plan of Union, Stamp Act Congress, First Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan On the backside, write the date and important facts about each item. Organize them chronologically. Who can show the class?