Presentation on theme: "11-18-08. DNA Review Contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all organisms Found in the nucleus of cells! Made."— Presentation transcript:
DNA Review Contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all organisms Found in the nucleus of cells! Made up of Nucleotides Sugar (deoxyribose) Phosphate Nitrogenous Base Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine
DNA Replication 1 DNA strand 2 DNA strands The first DNA strand acts as a template for the newly formed strand of DNA DNA polymerase copies the new strand of DNA Practice replicating DNA!!!
Single stranded Sugar is Ribose DNA = Deoxyribose Copied from DNA during a process called transcription Made up of nucleotides Does not contain thymine Uracil (U) replaces thymine in RNA strand
DNA vs. RNA DNA ATT GAT CAT AGT RNA AUU GAU CAU AGU
mRNA- (messenger RNA) sends the message of DNA to the ribosomes rRNA- (ribosomal RNA) make up ribosomes (place of protein assembly) tRNA- (transfer RNA) transfers the RNA message into proteins
Makes RNA from DNA DNA- GCA CTA GTC ATC RNA- CGU GAU CAG UAG End Result: 1 DNA strand 1 mRNA Strand
Transcription Steps 1. RNA polymerase, an enzyme, binds to DNA found in the nucleus and separates the DNA strands 2. RNA polymerase then uses one strand of DNA as a template for assembling a strand of mRNA that is then released into the cytoplasm.
REVIEW DNA Replication 1 DNA Strand2 DNA Strands Transcription DNARNA Translation RNAProtein
Making Proteins The sequence of nucleotides serves as instructions for the order of amino acids Proteins are made from joining many amino acids into a long chain The code is read 3 letters at a time
Codon Every three nucleotides is a word known as a codon. AGTTCCGAT Each specific codon represents a single amino acid Chains of amino acide make proteins 64 different codons
Translation Decoding of a mRNA into a polypeptide chain or protein. First mRNA is transcribed from DNA and released to the cytoplasm
5 Basic Steps in Translation Step 1: A ribosome forms around a molecule of mRNA needs the start codon AUG Step 2: Each codon allows the proper amino acid to be brought into the ribosome by tRNA. Step 3: The amino acids are attached together along an “assembly line” to form a chain.