# Section 1: Thinking Like a Scientist

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Section 1: Thinking Like a Scientist
What skills do scientists use to learn about the world?

What is Science? Science is a way of learning about the natural world.
Scientists use skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, classifying, and making models to learn more about the world and make scientific progress.

Skills Scientists Use:
Observing- Using one or more senses to gather information. 2 Types of observations: 1) Qualitative Observations- Do not involve numbers or measurements, “That man is tall.” 2) Quantitative Observations- Involve measurements, “That man is 6’5” tall.” Inferring (or making an inference)- Based on your observations or what you already know; not always correct. Predicting- making forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence

Observation Versus Inference!
The lady is wearing a ring on left hand ring finger. That lady is married. The boy is carrying an umbrella. It must be raining outside. The man has grey hair. That man is old.

Now you try! In your notes, classify the following as observations or inferences:
She must go to the beach a lot. Her skin is very tan. I smell funnel cake! There may be an amusement park nearby.

Now you try! In your notes, classify the following as observations or inferences:
She must go to the beach a lot. Her skin is very tan. I smell funnel cake! There may be an amusement park nearby.  INFERENCE  OBSERVATION  OBSERVATION  INFERENCE

More Skills Scientists Use:
Classifying- Process of grouping together items that are alike in some way. Examples: You may classify your school notebooks by subject, in this class we classify them by chapter, you classify your dresser by types of clothing, etc. Can you think of any examples?? Making Models- involves creating representations of complex objects or processes. Examples: Globes, maps Can you think of any examples? Scale models accurately show the proportions between its parts. You are probably familiar with scales on maps.

Thinking Like a Scientist
Observing By patiently observing chimpanzees, Jane Goodall learned many things about chimpanzee behavior. Inferring When you explain or interpret your observations, you are making an inference. Classifying Field notes like these contain many details about a chimp’s daily activities. Prediction Predictions are forecasts of what will happen next. ccc

Chimp Food This graph shows the diet of chimps at Gombe National Park during May of one year.

According to the graph, what foods do chimps eat? Fruit, seeds, leaves, meat, insects, blossoms, and other foods

Chimp Food Interpreting Data:
Did chimps feed more on seeds or leaves during this month? Seeds

Chimp Food Calculating:
What percentage of the diet did blossoms, seeds, leaves, and fruit make up? 95%

Chimp Food Predicting: Suppose you learn that November is the main termite- fishing season, when chimps spend a large part of their time eating termites. Predict how the chimp diet might change in November. Insects will constitute a much greater portion of the chimps diet, with other food diminishing proportionately.