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Introduction Session 01 Matakuliah: S0753 – Teknik Jalan Raya Tahun: 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Session 01 Matakuliah: S0753 – Teknik Jalan Raya Tahun: 2009."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction Session 01 Matakuliah: S0753 – Teknik Jalan Raya Tahun: 2009

3 Bina Nusantara University 3 Contents Introduction Classification Definition Functional Element Characteristic

4 Bina Nusantara University 4 Introduction Highway engineering is the branch of civil engineering  concerned with design of pavement structure, design of geometric alingment for safe highways and road. Highway engineering became popular after the World War in 20 th Century

5 Bina Nusantara University 5 Introduction Scope of Work Pavement Engineering Design Asphalt Testing Material Geometric for Alignment Design Road Construction

6 Bina Nusantara University 6 Definition Highway is a term commonly used is to designate major roads intended for travel by the public between important destinations, such as cities. wikipedia

7 Bina Nusantara University 7 The term highway can also be varied country- to-country, and can be referred to a road, freeway, superhighway, autoroute, autobahn, parkway, expressway, autostrasse, autostrada, byway, auto- estrada or motorway wikipedia Classification

8 Bina Nusantara University 8 Functional Classification Is the process by which streets and highways are grouped into classes, or systems, according to the character of traffic service that they are intended to provide

9 Bina Nusantara University 9 Functional Classification Streets and highways classification –Orderly grouping roads based on service –Assist in geometric design features –In accordance with operational needs –Establishes hierarchy of roads –Efficient and safe if road serve their purpose

10 Bina Nusantara University 10 Three functional classifications: –arterials –Collector –local roads Functional Classification

11 Bina Nusantara University 11 Arterial : highest level of service, high mobility, low access, long trips, fast speeds Collector: less highly developed level of service, lower speed for shorter trips, collects traffic from local roads and connecting them with arterials Local: all roads not defined as arterials or collectors, provides access to land with littler or not through traffic, low speed Functional Classification

12 Bina Nusantara University 12 Characteristics Determined by characteristics: –function –access density –traffic demands –trip length –expected speed

13 Bina Nusantara University 13 Functional Classification in the Design Process The first step in the design process is to define the function that the facility is to serve. The level of service required to fulfill this function provides the basis for design speed and geometric criteria within the range of values available to the designer Functional classification decisions are made before the design phase, but there is flexibility in the major controlling factor of design speed

14 Bina Nusantara University 14 Design Classification System Classification system (differences in) –Traffic and land service –Design features –Operational needs (adjacent land use) –For all areas in Canada Rural (R)Urban (U) Lane Local (L) Collector (C) Arterial (A) Expressway (E) Freeway (F)

15 Bina Nusantara University 15 Design Classification (contd.) Ten primary divisions Design subdivisions –Divided (D) or undivided (U) –Design speed (value) Example (See Table, next slide) –RAD (90) –UCU (80) Comments Number of classes: 63 Design speed increases from local to freeways All locals street are undivided All freeways are divided

16 Bina Nusantara University 16 Factors considered in Classification Adjacent Land Use: –Urban vs. rural classification Service Function: –Access to land. Ex: local –Service to traffic. Ex: freeways –both Traffic Volume: –Freeways: high volume –Collectors and locals: low volume Flow Characteristics: –Freeways: uninterrupted facility –Locals; interrupted facility

17 Bina Nusantara University 17 Factors considered in Classification Running Speed: –Generally increase from locals to collectors to arterials to freeways Vehicle Type: –Proportion of passenger cars, buses, large trucks Connections: –Normal for roads to connect to the same classification or one higher or one lower

18 Bina Nusantara University 18 Road Connections

19 Bina Nusantara University 19 Highway Development Process Highway design is only one element of the overall development process Five stages of highway development process: planning, project development, final design, right-of-way, and construction Different activities with overlap in terms of coordination Flexibility available for highway design during the detailed design phase is limited by decisions on early stages

20 Bina Nusantara University 20 Overview of the Highway Development Process

21 Bina Nusantara University 21

22 Bina Nusantara University 22 Planning Initial definition of the need for any highway or bridge improvement project takes place in this phase Problems identified fall into these categories: –Existing physical structure needs major repair/replacement –Existing or projected future travel demands exceed available capacity, and access to transportation and mobility need to be increased (capacity). –The route is experiencing an inordinate number of safety and accident problems that can only be resolved through physical, geometric changes (safety). –Developmental pressures along the route make a reexamination of the number, location, and physical design of access points necessary (access).

23 Bina Nusantara University 23 Planning Once problem is identified, it is important that all parties agree that the problem exists and that it should be fixed Consider potential impacts of project: –How will the proposed transportation improvement affect the general physical character of the area surrounding the project? –Does the area to be affected have unique historic or scenic characteristics? –What are the safety, capacity, and cost concerns of the community? Answers on this phase

24 Bina Nusantara University 24 Factors in Planning

25 Bina Nusantara University 25 Project Development Environmental analysis intensifies Includes a description of the location and major design features of the recommended project Try to avoid, minimize and mitigate environmental impacts Basic steps: –Refinement of purpose and need –Development of a range of alternatives (including the "no-build" and traffic management system) –Evaluation of alternatives and their impact on the natural and built environments –Development of appropriate mitigation

26 Bina Nusantara University 26 Project Development (contd.) Assess area –Consider context and physical location –Data collection effort –Identify constraints Consider factors and select preferred alternative

27 Bina Nusantara University 27 Final Design After a preferred alternative is selected and the project description agreed on upon as stated in the environmental document, the final design occurs The product of this phase is a complete set of plans, specifications, and estimates (PS&Es) of required quantities of materials ready for the solicitation of construction bids and subsequent construction Depending on the scale and complexity, this phase may take from a few months to several years

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