Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Causes of “The Great War”

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Causes of “The Great War”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of “The Great War”

2 Nationalism Nationalism = intense pride in one’s own country or nationality European states became more concerned with their own interests than with maintaining the peace that had held for close to 100 years

3 Militarism Militarism: the process of building up military strength for the purpose of intimidating other countries If one nation builds up its military, then all others must do so as well

4 Confusing (& secret) alliances
1882: Germany allied with Austria & Italy 1894: France allied with Russia 1904: Britain allied with France Germany secretly allied with Ottomans Britain secretly allied with Japan

5 Archduke Franz Ferdinand
1863 – 1914 Nephew of Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph & heir to the throne of Austria Married Countess Sophie who was beneath him in station, essentially giving up his rights to the throne Sent on an official state visit to Sarajevo in the Austrian-held province of Bosnia


7 Assassination June 28, 1914 Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated by a Bosnian nationalist Austria demanded that Serbia, who had supposedly supported the assassins, turn over anyone who was involved in the plot

8 When Serbia refused, Austria declared war

9 Russia enters the war Russia, which supported a policy of Pan-Slavism (unity of all Slavic peoples), demonstrated its support for Serbia by declaring war on Austria

10 Germany, under their monarch Kaiser Wilhelm II, sided with Austria

11 France sided with Russia

12 Germany invaded neutral Belgium to position themselves to attack France

13 Britain, an ally of Belgium, declared war on Germany

14 The Two Sides of WWI “The Central Powers” : Germany, Austria, & the Ottomans “The Triple Entente”: Great Britain, France, & Russia

15 The U.S. & The War 15

16 Woodrow Wilson 1856 – 1924 28th President (1913 – 21)
A pacifist, he supported US neutrality (taking no sides) and isolationism (avoiding foreign conflicts) His Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, was also dedicated to neutrality 16

17 Americans Take Sides Some were pro-Germany: German immigrants, Irish immigrants (who were more anti-British) Most were pro-British: most Americans identified with Britain (same language & culture), US businesses traded heavily with Britain, US banks had loaned Britain over $2 billion (had only loaned $27 million to Germany)

18 German U-boats Germany attempted to prevent Britain & France from obtaining supplies from overseas by using submarines to attack shipping Feb. 1915: Germany announced unrestricted submarine warfare in the waters around Britain – any ships could be attacked without warning

19 The Lusitania May 7, 1916: German U-boat attacked and sank the British passenger liner Lusitania, killing nearly 1200 civilians, including 128 Americans Wilson responded by warning Germany that it had a responsibility to protect non-combatants or risk war with the US

20 The Sussex Pledge After a 2nd attack in March 1916 that injured Americans aboard the French ship Sussex, Wilson issued a sterner warning to Germany Germany did not want the US to enter the war, so they promised to stop attacking merchant ships without warning Wilson, who did not really want to enter the war, used the so-called Sussex Pledge as a political tool for getting re-elected

21 Election of 1916 Wilson won re-election on the slogan “He kept us out of war!” Isolationists’ numbers were dwindling though as the war in Europe grew more intense and US interests were threatened

22 Jeanette Rankin 1880 – 1973 Became the first woman to ever serve in Congress when she was elected by Montana to serve in the House of Representatives Dedicated pacifist, she was the only member of Congress to vote against the US entering both WWI & WWII, also opposed the Korean & Vietnam Wars

23 The Zimmermann Telegram
January 1917: German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann sent orders to the German ambassador in Mexico to offer Mexico an alliance with Germany Germany would help Mexico reclaim Texas, California, and the Southwest if Mexico could keep the US occupied and out of the war in Europe 23

24 Zimmermann Telegram Backfires
Zimmermann’s note was intercepted by the British and published in US newspapers Most Americans were enraged and began to demand war 24

25 Germany’s New Plan Germany decided they needed to end the war before the US could mobilize Feb. 1, 1917: resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in the hopes they could force a quick British surrender Began to attack US merchant ships without warning, prompting Wilson to take action

26 US Declares War April 2, 1917: Wilson appeared before Congress and asked for a declaration of war against Germany The Senate approved war by a vote of 82 to 6, the House by a vote of 373 to 50 26

Download ppt "Causes of “The Great War”"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google