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WWII, COLD WAR, KOREAN WAR American History II - Unit 5 Ms. Brown.

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Presentation on theme: "WWII, COLD WAR, KOREAN WAR American History II - Unit 5 Ms. Brown."— Presentation transcript:

1 WWII, COLD WAR, KOREAN WAR American History II - Unit 5 Ms. Brown

2 Review Why was the Battle of Stalingrad considered a turning point for the USSR in the war? German forces started retreating while Soviet forces moved westward What was Operation Torch and what was its goal? Allied invasion of Axis-controlled north Africa To reduce the power of Axis forces by capturing part of their empire What was Operation Overlord and what its goal? “D-Day” – Allied invasion of German-occupied Europe (France) To begin liberating occupied areas in Europe and eventually surround Germany How did the Battle of the Bulge signify the beginning of the end of WWII in Europe? Hitler’s last stand – failed attempt to break through Allied forces at German border German forces could do nothing but retreat until surrender When and what was V-E Day? May 8, 1945 – Victory in Europe Day – Third Reich surrendered


4 Theaters of War War theater – area where warring activities occur European theater– German and Italian forces Pacific theater – Japanese forces

5 Japanese Pacific Domination Jan-June 1942 – Japan conquered: Mainland: Hong Kong, French Indochina, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, and a large region of China Pacific: Dutch East Indies, Guam, Wake Island, the Solomon Islands, 2 Alaskan islands, and more General Douglas MacArthur – in command of Allied forces in the Philippines Losing  FDR ordered him to return home  “I shall return.”

6 Doolittle’s Raid Spring 1942 – tide turns for Allies in the Pacific April 18, 1942 – Doolittle's Raid Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle led 16 bombers in an air raid on Tokyo and other cities Pearl Harbor style air attack... Americans pleased, Japanese hurt

7 Battle of Midway Midway – an island northwest of Hawaii Japanese code broken to reveal the planned attack on Midway Admiral Chester Nimitz to defend Midway June 3, 1942 – US scouts found Japanese fleet Nimitz sent American torpedo planes and dive bombers Japanese could not react to bombers, all aircrafts remained on the decks  Japanese lost 4 aircraft carriers and 250 planes Americans had “avenged Pearl Harbor.” – Japanese official

8 Battle of Midway TURNING POINT in WWII in the Pacific in favor of the Allies  “island hopping” to get closer to Japan

9 Allies on the Offensive August 1942 – 19,000 Allied troops stormed Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands  Japanese left island in early 1943 (1 st defeat on land) “Island of Death” Island hopped back to the Philippines in Oct 1944 “People of the Philippines: I have returned.” - MacArthur

10 The Japanese Defense Kamikaze – “divine wind” – attack in which Japanese pilots crashed their bomb-laden planes into Allied ships Not used until 1944 “a strange mixture of respect and pity” – Vice Admiral Charles Brown Despite the effectiveness of kamikazes, Japanese defense in the Philippines was a disaster Lost 3 battleships, 4 aircraft carriers, 13 cruisers, and 500 men Japanese Imperial Navy severely damaged

11 Iwo Jima Feb-March 1945 - After success in Philippines, MacArthur and Allies turned to the island of Iwo Jima “sulfur island” Critical asset for Allies  wanted to set up a temporary base to be close to Japan Heavily guarded with 27,000 Japanese soldiers 6,000 marines died – most deadly battle in the Pacific at that time Only 200 Japanese survived Most-enduring image of WWII

12 The Battle for Okinawa April 1945 – US marines invaded Okinawa an Island off of Japan (340 miles) - “Typhoon of Steel” Allied ships suffered large kamikaze attacks, as well as large land casualties 7,600 Americans killed < 110,000 Japanese killed 2 Japanese generals committed suicide Allies one step closer to mainland Japan

13 The Manhattan Project Allied victory at Okinawa opened the way for an invasion of Japan BUT Allied leaders knew Japanese troops would put up a strong fight to protect the island. Truman decided to use a powerful new weapon – the atomic bomb developed by the Manhattan Project Truman didn’t know about project until POTUS Led by General Leslie Groves and American scientist, J. Robert Oppenheimer July 16, 1945 – 1 st test  ”Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.” ”Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.”

14 Truman’s Decision July 26, 1945 – Truman ordered military to make final plans to drop atomic bombs on 2 Japanese targets “The final decision of where and when to use the atomic bomb was up to me. Let there be no mistake about it. I regarded the bomb as a military weapon and never had any doubt that it should be used.” US warned Japan that it faced “prompt and utter destruction” if it did not surrender immediately.

15 Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 6, 1945 – Enola Gay (B-29 bomber) dropped “Little boy” over Hiroshima (Japanese military hub)  ceased to exist August 9, 1945 – Bockscar dropped “Fat Man” on Nagasaki  leveled half of city By end of 1945 – almost 200,000 people died of injuries because of the bomb itself or radiation September 2, 1945 – Victory Over Japan Day aka “V-J Day” - Emperor Hirohito surrendered Japan

16 The Occupation of Japan 7 year American occupation of Japan (1945- 1952) with MacArthur in command 7 Japanese officials sentenced to death (Tojo) 1,100 Japanese lower officials and guards arrested and tried Reshaped Japanese economy by introducing free- market practices Oversaw the writing of a new constitution with suffrage for women and guaranteed basic freedoms  MacArthur Constitution

17 Yalta Conference Feb 1945 - Yalta Conference – Big Three (FDR, Churchill, Stalin) met in USSR to discuss Germany’s fate when they lost Stalin – harsh approach, separate Germany into zones occupied by Allied troops Churchill disagreed FDR acted as mediator Wanted Soviet army to join in the Pacific Wanted Stalin’s support of new world peace-keeping organization called the United Nations.

18 Yalta Conference Compromises at Yalta Division of Germany into 4 temporary zones (US, GB, USSR, France) Free and unfettered elections in Poland and other Soviet occupied eastern European countries Stalin joined war against Japan and agreed to participate in an international peace conference in the US (form the UN)

19 Nuremburg War Trials Discovery of death camps  24 Nazi leaders on trial for… crimes against humanity – murder, extermination, deportation, or enslavement of citizens crimes against peace – planning/waging an aggressive war war crimes – acts against the customs of warfare, such as the killing of hostages and prisoners, the plundering of private property, and the destruction of towns and cities. Nuremburg Trials (1945-49) Defendants (the accused): Hitler’s most trusted party officials, gov’t ministers, military leaders, and powerful industrialists Prosecution led by US Chief Justice Robert Jackson

20 Nuremburg War Trials

21 Nuremberg War Trials 12 of 24 sentenced to death (2 committed suicide before execution), most remaining sentenced to prison time Later, 200 lesser leaders found guilty of war crimes Many Nazis did go free  some argue the Nuremburg Trials didn’t go far enough in finding and prosecuting Nazis IMPACT – established the principle that people are responsible for their own actions during war “following orders” is not an excuse Model for the Declaration of Human Rights and eventual establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC)

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