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Industrialization: Case Study Manchester

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1 Industrialization: Case Study Manchester
Chapter 9 Section 2 Industrialization: Case Study Manchester

2 Industrial Cities Rise
Factories offered higher wages than farms People began to live and look better (i.e. homes were heated, clothes were nice) People moved to cities to find jobs (population grew) Factories emerged near energy sources English cities grew immensely

3 Living Conditions Since population grew so rapidly, there were no development plans or sanitary and building codes Cities lacked adequate housing, education, and police protection for newcomers Cities were dirty due to lack of drainage and garbage collection

4 Living Conditions (cont)
Whole families shared one bedroom of a shelter Sickness spread quickly (Epidemics of cholera were common) City dwellers had a 17 year life span; Rural living was 38 Well-to-do merchants and factory owners lived in the suburbs

5 Working Conditions 14 hour days / 6 days a week
Dangerous places to work Women and children worked in factories and mines because they were the cheapest labor

6 Class Tensions Grow Middle class emerges-consisted of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers Landowners and aristocrats looked down on the new wealthy Upper Middle Class-consisted of government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers of factories Lower Middle Class-consisted of factory overseers and skilled workers

7 The Working Class Frustrated by being replaced by machines
Luddites attacked factories to destroy the machines that stole their jobs

8 Positive Effects of Industrialization
Created jobs for workers Contributed to wealth of nation Fostered technological progress and inventions

9 1800’s Diets became healthier Housing conditions became better
Clothing was made cheaper but better Laborers received higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions (creation of unions)

10 Mills of Manchester Occurred-access to water power, available labor, and harbor at Liverpool Business owners reaped the benefits from the factories and built homes in the suburbs Laborers worked in terrible conditions

11 Mills of Manchester (cont)
Child as young as 6 worked from 6am-7 or 8pm To keep the children awake, supervisors would beat or whip the children Injuries occurred frequently and the air was hard to breathe Factory Act of 1819 changed labor laws and helped the children

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