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Metric System Ms. Kim

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Metric System Developed by the French in the late 1700’s. Based on powers of ten, so it is very easy to use. Used by almost every country in the world, with the notable exception of the USA. Especially used by scientists. Abbreviated SI, which is French for Systeme International. (in science, we only use the SI unit) This means: NO inches, Fahrenheit, pounds, etc copyright cmassengale

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Metric Prefixes Regardless of the unit, the entire metric system uses the same prefixes. Common prefixes are: kilo = 1000 centi = 1/100 th OR 0.01 milli = 1/1000 th OR 0.001 1 meter = 100 centimeters= 1000 millimeters copyright cmassengale

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Measuring Volume Top Image: http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/resources/online/2006/grade8/science/images/20graphicaa.gif Bottom Image: http://morrisonlabs.com/meniscus.htm Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve. When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water. What is the volume of water in the cylinder? _____mL What causes the meniscus? A concave meniscus occurs when the molecules of the liquid attract those of the container. The glass attracts the water on the sides. 43

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Measuring Liquid Volume Images created at http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframework/downloads/SWF/measuring_cylinder.swf What is the volume of water in each cylinder? Pay attention to the scales for each cylinder.

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Measuring Solid Volume 10 cm 9 cm 8 cm We can measure the volume of regular object using the formula length x width x height. _____ X _____ X _____ = _____ http://resources.edb.gov.hk/~s1sci/R_S1Science/sp/en/sy llabus/unit14/new/testingmain1.htm We can measure the volume of an irregular object using water displacement. Amount of H 2 O with object = ______ About of H 2 O without object = ______ Difference = Volume = ______ 9 cm720 cm 3 8 cm10 cm 260 mL 200 mL 60 mL

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Metric System The metric system is based on a SI base unit that corresponds to a certain kind of measurement Length = meter Volume = liter Weight (Mass) = gram Prefixes plus base units make up the metric system – Example: Centi + meter = Centimeter Kilo + liter = Kiloliter

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Prefixes: (all are lower case letters) kilo = k = 1,000 x base unit hecto = h = 100 x base unit deca = da = 10 x base unit deci = d =.1 x base unit centi = c =.01 x base unit milli = m =.001 x base unit

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Metric System These prefixes are based on powers of 10. What does this mean? – From each prefix every “step” is either: 10 times larger or 10 times smaller – For example Centimeters are 10 times larger than millimeters 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters

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Metric System An easy way to move within the metric system is by moving the decimal point one place for each “step” desired Example: change meters to centimeters 1 meter = 10 decimeters = 100 centimeters or 1.00 meter = 10.0 decimeters = 100. centimeters kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System Now let’s try our previous example from meters to kilometers: 16093 meters = 1609.3 decameters = 160.93 hectometers = 16.093 kilometers So for every “step” from the base unit to kilo, we moved the decimal 1 place to the left (the same direction as in the diagram below) kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System If you move to the left in the diagram, move the decimal to the left If you move to the right in the diagram, move the decimal to the right kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System Now let’s start from centimeters and convert to kilometers 400000 centimeters = 4 kilometers 400000 centimeters = 4.00000 kilometers kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System Now let’s start from meters and convert to kilometers 4000 meters = 4 kilometers kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli Now let’s start from centimeters and convert to meters 4000 centimeters = 40 meters

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Metric System Now let’s start from meters and convert to centimeters 5 meters = 500 centimeters kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli Now let’s start from kilometers and convert to meters.3 kilometers = 300 meters

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Metric System Now let’s start from kilometers and convert to millimeters 4 kilometers = 4000000 millimeters or 4 kilometers = 40 hectometers = 400 decameters = 4000 meters = 40000 decimeters = 400000 centimeters = 4000000 millimeters kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System Summary – Base units in the metric system are meter, liter, gram – Metric system is based on powers of 10 – For conversions within the metric system, each “step” is 1 decimal place to the right or left – Using the diagram below, converting to the right, moves the decimal to the right and vice versa kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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