Classification Domain Archaea and Kingdom Archaebacteria …No peptidoglycan in cell wall …DNA similar to Eukaryotes …Harsh Environments
Domain Bacteria and Kingdom Eubacteria …Peptidoglycan in cell wall …DNA unlike eukaryotes
Bacteria Anatomy Cell Wall Capsule Endospore Pili Flagella
Bacteria commonly come in three forms. –rod-shaped, called bacilli Lactobacilli: rod-shaped Spirochaeta: spiral Enterococci: spherical – spiral, called spirilla or spirochetes – spherical, called cocci
Bacteria can evolve resistance to antibiotics. A bacterium carries genes for antibiotic resistance on a plasmid. A copy of the plasmid is transferred through conjugation. Resistance is quickly spread through many bacteria.
Viruses Nonliving particle that can cause disease. Composed of a protein coat and nucleic acid
host bacterium The bacterophage attaches and injects it DNA into a host bacterium. The host bacterium breaks apart, or lyses. Bacteriophages are able to infect new host cells. The viral DNA directs the host cell to produce new viral parts. The parts assemble into new bacteriophages. The viral DNA forms a circle. Viruses cause two types of infections. The virus may enter the lysogenic cycle, in which the host cell is not destroyed. Lytic
Lysogenic The viral DNA is called a prophage when it combines with the host cell’s DNA. Although the prophage is not active, it replicates along with the host cell’s DNA. Many cell divisions produce a colony of bacteria infected with prophage. The prophage may leave the host’s DNA and enter the lytic cycle.
Kingdom Protista Animal-like (Protozoans) –Flagella, Cilia, Pseudopodia Plant-like (Algae) –Photosynthetic Fungi-like (Molds and Mildews) –Slime Molds and Water Molds
Kingdom Fungi Plants and fungi have different traits. –Fungal cell walls are made of chitin. –Plant cell walls are made of cellulose. –Plants have chlorophyll and photosynthesize. –Fungi absorb food through hyphae. –Decomposers, Pathogens, Mutualists