2 The Equations:Cell Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP) Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2
3 BIG PICTURE OF CELL RESPIRATION: -process by which the mitochondria produce ATP by breaking down organic compounds (food we eat).-cells need “usable” forms of energy to function and maintain homeostasis. ATP is the usable form.
6 Step 1: GlycolysisFunction: -food we eat is converted to pyruvic acid (2 molecules pyruvate). -anaerobic (no oxygen) Location: cytosol of the eukaryotic cell Reactants: organic compounds (food), NAD+ & ADP Products: 2 pyruvic acid (pyruvate) 2 NADH (energy) 2 ATP’s (energy) Energy Yield: 2 ATP’s
7 Step 2 (if oxygen is present): Aerobic Respiration -pyruvic acid is converted to Acetyl Coa prior to entering the Kreb’s Cycle. Function: 1. Krebs cycle- produce NADH & FADH2 2. ETC & Chemiosmosis- produce ATP Location: eukaryotes- Krebs in the mitochondrial matrix & the ETC is in the inner mitochondrial membrane. prokaryotes- cytoplasm & cell membrane
8 Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Reactants: Acetyl CoA, NAD+ & FAD+ Products: CO2 (given off as a waste product) NADH FADH ATP (2 molecules)
9 Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis (uses enzyme: ATP synthase) Reactants: NADH, FADH2Products: NAD+ & FAD+ get recycledwater (given off as a waste product)ATP (34 molecules)
10 Fermentation: (if no oxygen is present) Two common fermentation pathways: 1. Lactic Acid Fermentation 2. Alcoholic Fermentation Function: -always start with glycolysis -no oxygen is present -NADH NAD+ (recycled back to glycolysis) -produce either lactic acid or alcohol. Location: cytosol *No oxygen = no ATP production.
11 Lactic Acid Fermentation Reactants: pyruvic acidNADHProduct: NAD+lactic acid-Lactic Acid Fermentation is important in the manufacturing of various foods. (yogurt, cheese)-Athletes also experience Lactic Acid buildup…cramping and fatigue.
12 Alcoholic Fermentation Reactants: pyruvic acid NADH Product: NAD+ alcohol -Process occurs in plants and yeast. -This process is important in making bread and alcohol products.
13 Final Analysis:Net production of ATP through aerobic respiration…38 ATP (2 from glycolysis 2 from Kreb’s and 34 from ETC/Chemiosmosis) Aerobic Respiration is much more efficient in producing ATP! Why…oxygen is present.