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SOL 7 and 8 Byzantine Empire / Islam. The Eastern & Western Roman Empires.

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Presentation on theme: "SOL 7 and 8 Byzantine Empire / Islam. The Eastern & Western Roman Empires."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOL 7 and 8 Byzantine Empire / Islam

2 The Eastern & Western Roman Empires

3 Byzantine Empire Why was Constantinople established as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire? – Protection of the Eastern Frontier – Distance from Germanic invasions in the West – Center of trade – Easily fortified peninsula bordered by natural harbors

4 Role of Constantinople Seat of byzantine Empire until the Ottoman conquest Preserved Greco-Roman culture Trade center

5 Justinian Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture & prosperity. He: – Codified Roman law What was the impact? – Basis of European legal codes – Reconquered former Roman territory – Expanded trade

6 Justinian

7 Art and Architecture They preserved Greek & Roman traditions in their art & architecture. What was it inspired by? – Christian religion and imperial power Icons – Religious images Mosaics – Pictures made from pieces of glass/stone/tile Hagia Sophia – Built as a domed church by Justinian


9 Culture Preserved Greco-Roman traditions Spoke Greek in the East – What did they speak in the West? Latin What was the Eastern Christian church called? Greek Orthodox Christianity Contribution of the Church? – Greco-Roman Knowledge preserved in libraries

10 Two Churches-Eastern and Western Cultural & political differences between the eastern & western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Church and led to its split. Western Church: – Centered in Rome – Farther from seat of power after Constantinople became capital – Use of Latin language in the liturgy Eastern Church: – Centered in Constantinople – Close to seat of power after Constantinople becomes capital – Use of Greek language in the liturgy

11 Division between Western and Eastern Churches Authority of the Pope eventually accepted in the West. Authority of the Patriarch accepted in the East. Practices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the West.

12 Russia Why did the Byzantine Empire have so much influence on religion, culture, and trade in Russia and Eastern Europe? – Trade routes between Black & Baltic Seas – Adoption of Orthodox Christianity – Adoption of Greek alphabet to the Slavic language (St. Cyril – Cyrillic alphabet) – Church architecture and religious art Onion-shaped domes

13 Islam Religion created by Muhammad. People who practice it are called Muslims. Where did the Islamic religion originate? – Muhammad (the Prophet) – Mecca and Medina (Arabian Peninsula) Where did it spread? – Across Asia and Africa also into Spain

14 Islam What are the beliefs, traditions, and customs of Islam? – Monotheistic Allah (God) – Qur’an (Koran) – word of God – Five Pillars – Acceptance of earlier Judeo-Christian prophets: Moses & Jesus

15 Islam Five Pillars – Belief in one God (Allah) – Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca – Give to charity (alms) – Fast during the month of Ramadan – Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime (hajj)

16 Geography Political unity & the Arabic language facilitated trade & stimulated intellectual activity. How did geography influence the rapid expansion of territory under Muslim rule? – Diffusion along trade routes from Mecca & Medina – Expansion despite geographical barriers – Spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and Central Asia facilitated by weak Byzantine and Persian empires



19 Geography Political unity of the first Muslim Empire was short-lived Arabic language spread with Islam & facilitated trade across Islamic lands. Slavery was not based on race.

20 Turning Points What were some major turning points that marked the spread and influence of Islamic civilization? – Death of Ali: Sunni-Shi’a division – Muslim conquests of Jerusalem and Damascus – Islamic capital moved to Baghdad – Muslim defeat at the Battle of Tours – Fall of Baghdad to the Mongols

21 Achievements Cultural contributions – Architecture (Dome of the Rock) – Mosaics – Arabic alphabet – Universities – Translation of ancient texts into Arabic


23 Achievements Arabic numerals from India, including the number zero Algebra Medicine Expansion of geographic knowledge

24 Example Questions

25 Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Which of the following best completes the chart? A. French B. Latin C. Arabic D. Greek ???? Greek

26 Who moved the capital of Rome to Byzantium? A.Constantine B.Diocletian C.Charlemagne D.Justinian

27 Emperor Justinian is most famous for doing which of the following? A.Reconquering many of the former Persian Empire territories B.Creating the barter system for trade C.Codification of Roman law D.Codification of Babylonian law

28 Which Byzantine art form is depicted here? A. Minarets B. Mosaics C. Hagia Sophia D. Fresco

29 In which of the following ways did the Byzantine Empire influence Russia? A.Switching their currency to the Bezant for trade B.Adoption of Orthodox Christianity C.Having the Russians (Slavs) use the Greek alphabet D.Cucumber-shaped domes

30 Where did Islam originate? A.1 B.2 C.3 D.4 1 2 3 4

31 Islam spread all over Southeast Asia, North Africa & into Spain. Which of the following helped unite Muslims of differing backgrounds? A.Greek B.Arabic C.Swahili D.Bantu

32 The Muslim defeat at this Battle halted the spread of Islam from going further into Europe. A.Hastings B.Verdun C.Constantinople D.Tours

33 Which of the following best completes the chart? A.Geometry B.Compass C.Algebra D.10 Commandments Islamic Culture Geographic Knowledge ????? Medicine

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