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Falls: Low Vision and Falls Jag Mallya 1-09-2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Falls: Low Vision and Falls Jag Mallya 1-09-2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Falls: Low Vision and Falls Jag Mallya 1-09-2010

2 Definition: A fall is an event which results in a person inadvertently coming to rest on the ground, the floor or other lower level. No evidence of: sudden onset of paralysis, epileptic seizure, or Loss of consciousness overwhelming external force

3 Epidemiology of Falls > 65 years – 30% > 75 years – 40% 50% of falls in people who fall twice or more in a year.

4 Consequences of Falls Commonest cause of Accidental injury in older people. Commonest cause of Accidental Death in > 75 years of age. 6% falls > 65 years result in a fracture. Commonest cause for older people to attend A & E > 75 years hip fractures predominate. Fragility fracture also costs £ 1.7 billion per year (In-patient & long term provision.)

5 Table 10: Cost of an individual hip fracture Category Cost Hospital care £4,760 Ambulance £171 Long stay residential care £20,010 GP use £164 Outpatient use £319 Total Cost £25,424

6 Cost of Hip Fracture in Elderly in UK. Hospital Costs: $ 430,407,013 Social Care Costs: $ 933,420,670 Other: $ 18,000,000 Approx Total Cost: $1,382,932,183 Ref: “ The Economic cost of hip fracture in the UK. ”

7 Social Costs of Falls By 2051 = Falls (Population of Australia: 22,403,920) Direct health cost attributed to falls related injury will increase 3 fold. 2500 additional hospital beds will need to be permanently allocated to falls. 3320 additional Nursing Home places. Ref: Health Service impacts and costs of falls in older age (WHO) Dongbu Fu


9 Falls are Multifactorial: Intrinsic FactorsExtrinsic Factors FALLS Medical conditions Impaired vision and hearing Age related changes Medications Improper use of assistive devices Environment

10 Falls in the Community Accidents/environment37% Weakness, balance, gait12% Drop attack11% Dizziness or vertigo8% Orthostatic hypotension5% Acute illness, confusion, drugs, decreased vision18% Unknown 8% Rubenstein JAGS 1988

11 Causes of Falls: Summary of 12 Studies Accident/environment Gait/balance disorder Dizziness/vertigo Drop attack Confusion Postural hypotension Vision problem Other specified Unknown 31% 17 13 10 4 3 15 5 Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR. Clin Geriatr Med. 2002(May);18(2):141-158

12 Age related changes affecting balance

13 Normal Changes with Aging Neurologic: Increased reaction time Decreased righting reflexes Decreased Proprioception Vision Changes: Decreased accommodation & dark adaptation Decreased muscle mass: Strength

14 Assessment and Management of Falls Periodic case finding in Primary Care: Ask all patients about falls in past year No falls No intervention Recurrent Single fall falls Gait/balance problems Check for gait/balance problem No problems Fall Evaluation* Assessment History Medications Vision Gait and balance Lower limb joints Neurological Cardiovascular Multifactorial intervention (as appropriate) Gait, balance, exercise - programs Medication - modification Postural hypotension - treatment Environmental hazards - modification Cardiovascular disorders - treatment


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