Presentation on theme: "1 10.1 Properties of Acids and Bases & 10.2 Theoretical Acid-Base Definitions."— Presentation transcript:
1 10.1 Properties of Acids and Bases & 10.2 Theoretical Acid-Base Definitions
Recall: Properties of Acids and Bases Acid Base - pH 7 - tastes sour - tastes bitter - no special feel- feels slippery - neutralizes a base- neutralizes an acid - Ex. HCl - Ex. NaOH
Reactions of Acids 1) With a metal: Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) A metal and an acid will react to produce hydrogen gas.
Reactions of Acids 2) With a carbonate compound: CaCO 3 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) CaCl 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) Carbonate compounds and an acid will react to produce carbon dioxide gas and water.
Reactions of Bases Bases react with carbon dioxide gas to produce carbonates: Ex. Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) CaCO 3 (s) + H 2 O (l)
Naming Acids Without Oxygen Without oxygen—start with prefix hydro- and end with –ic acid Examples: H 2 S (aq)= HI (aq) =
Naming Acids With Oxygen With oxygen—based on the name of the oxyanion (the anion with the oxygen attached): Oxyanion name ending in –ate, the acid name ends in –ic acid Examples: HClO 3 - = HNO 3= Oxyanion name ending in –ite, acid name ends in –ous acid Examples: HClO 2 = HNO 2 =
Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases ACIDS= molecular compounds that ionize in water and release H + ions Ex. HNO 3 (aq) H + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) BASES= ionic compounds that dissociate in water and release OH - ions Ex. Ca(OH) 2 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 OH - (aq) NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS= can be represented by the following H + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2 O (l)
Strong and Weak Acids Strong acid= will completely ionize in water (lower pH and react vigorously) Ex. HCl (aq) H+ (aq) + Cl - (aq) Weak acid= will partially ionize in water (higher pH and react less vigorously) Ex. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) H + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq)
In General… The strength of an acid, HA (aq), depends on how much it ionizes in aqueous solution. HA (aq) H + (aq) + A - (aq)
pH and Acidity pH = 7, neutral pH > 7 = basic pH < 7= acidic a pH change of 1 unit represents a 10-fold change in how basic or acidic a solution is Ex. Lemon juice (pH = 2) is 10x more acidic than pop (pH = 3)