 # + The Practice of Statistics, 4 th edition – For AP* STARNES, YATES, MOORE Chapter 7: Sampling Distributions Section 7.3 Sample Means.

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+ The Practice of Statistics, 4 th edition – For AP* STARNES, YATES, MOORE Chapter 7: Sampling Distributions Section 7.3 Sample Means

+ Chapter 7 Sampling Distributions 7.1What is a Sampling Distribution? 7.2Sample Proportions 7.3Sample Means

+ Section 7.3 Sample Means After this section, you should be able to… FIND the mean and standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a sample mean CALCULATE probabilities involving a sample mean when the population distribution is Normal EXPLAIN how the shape of the sampling distribution of sample means is related to the shape of the population distribution APPLY the central limit theorem to help find probabilities involving a sample mean Learning Objectives

+ Sample Means Sample proportions arise most often when we are interested in categorical variables. When we record quantitative variables we areinterested in other statistics such as the median or mean or standarddeviation of the variable. Sample means are among the mostcommon statistics. Consider the mean household earnings for samples of size 100. Compare the population distribution on the left with the samplingdistribution on the right. What do you notice about the shape, center,and spread of each?

+ The Sampling Distribution of When we choose many SRSs from a population, the sampling distribution of the sample mean is centered at the population mean µ and is less spread out than the population distribution. Here are the facts. as long as the 10% condition is satisfied: n ≤ (1/10)N. Mean and Standard Deviation of the Sampling Distribution of Sample Means Sample Means

+ Sampling from a Normal Population Sampling Distribution of a Sample Mean from a Normal Population

Example: Young Women’s Heights The height of young women follows a Normal distribution with mean µ = 64.5 inches and standard deviation σ = 2.5 inches. Find the probability that a randomly selected young woman is taller than 66.5 inches. Let X = the height of a randomly selected young woman. X is N(64.5, 2.5) The probability of choosing a young woman at random whose height exceeds 66.5 inches is about 0.21. Find the probability that the mean height of an SRS of 10 young women exceeds 66.5 inches. For an SRS of 10 young women, the sampling distribution of their sample mean height will have a mean and standard deviation Since the population distribution is Normal, the sampling distribution will follow an N(64.5, 0.79) distribution. It is very unlikely (less than a 1% chance) that we would choose an SRS of 10 young women whose average height exceeds 66.5 inches. Sample Means

+ Check Your Understanding The length of human pregnancies from conception to birth varies according to a distribution that is approximately normal with mean 266 days and standard deviation 16 days. 1. Find the probability that a randomly chosen pregnant woman has a pregnancy that lasts for more than 270 days. Suppose we choose an SRS of 6 pregnant women. Let x = the mean pregnancy length for the sample. 2. What is the mean of the sampling distribution of x? 3. Compute the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of x.. Check that the 10% condition is met. 4. Find the probability that the mean pregnancy length for women in the sample exceeds 270 days.

+ The Central Limit Theorem Most population distributions are not Normal. What is the shape of the sampling distribution of sample means when the population distribution isn’tNormal? It is a remarkable fact that as the sample size increases, the distribution of sample means changes its shape: it looks less like that of the populationand more like a Normal distribution! When the sample is large enough, thedistribution of sample means is very close to Normal, no matter what shape the population distribution has, as long as the population has a finite standard deviation. Sample Means Note: How large a sample size n is needed for the sampling distribution to be close to Normal depends on the shape of the population distribution. More observations are required if the population distribution is far from Normal. Definition:

+ The Central Limit Theorem Sample Means Normal Condition for Sample Means

Example: Servicing Air Conditioners Based on service records from the past year, the time (in hours) that a technician requires to complete preventative maintenance on an air conditioner follows the distribution that is strongly right-skewed, and whose most likely outcomes are close to 0. The mean time is µ = 1 hour and the standard deviation is σ = 1 Your company will service an SRS of 70 air conditioners. You have budgeted 1.1 hours per unit. Will this be enough? Since the 10% condition is met (there are more than 10(70)=700 air conditioners in the population), the sampling distribution of the mean time spent working on the 70 units has Sample Means The sampling distribution of the mean time spent working is approximately N(1, 0.12) since n = 70 ≥ 30. If you budget 1.1 hours per unit, there is a 20% chance the technicians will not complete the work within the budgeted time. We need to find P(mean time > 1.1 hours)

Example Suppose that the number of texts sent during a typical day by a randomly selected high school student follows a right-skewed distribution with a mean of 15 and a standard deviation of 35. Assuming that students at your school are typical texters, how likely is it that a random sample of 50 students will have sent more than a total of 1000 texts in the last 24 hours?

+ Section 7.3 Sample Means In this section, we learned that… Summary

+ Section 7.3 Sample Means In this section, we learned that… Summary

+ Looking Ahead… We’ll learn how to estimate population parameters with confidence, using sample statistics. We’ll learn about Confidence Intervals Estimating Population Proportions Estimating Population Means In the next Chapter…

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