Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE first Chinese empires

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "THE first Chinese empires"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE first Chinese empires
Chapter 6

2 Schools of Thought in Ancient China
Confucianism Daoism Legalism

3 Confucianism Under Zhou Dynasty
Confucius was known to the Chinese as the First Teacher Confucius was born in 551 BC Upset by the violence and moral decay of his era Traveled around China to persuade political leaders to follow his ideas Book of teachings: Analects

4 Confucianism Confucius provided a set of ideas that eventually became widely accepted Confucius’ ideas were not spiritual but they were philosophical and dealt with politics and ethics Believed it was useless to speculate on spiritual questions

5 Confucius 2 elements: Dao (Way): Duty and humanity
Five Constant Relationships: Parent and child Husband and wife Older sibling and younger sibling Older friend and younger friend Ruler and subject *Each people had a duty to the other Humanity- people are supposed to have compassion and empathy for others

6 Confucius Taught that humans are basically good
His message was widely spread throughout China Stressed a return to the Golden Age of China Believed government service should be open to all men of superior talent and not limited to those of noble birth

7 Daoism Daoism was a system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi or Old Master Book of teachings: The Way of the Dao Concerned with proper forms of human behavior Daoists believe that the way to follow the will of Heaven is not through action but inaction. The best way to act in harmony with the universal order is not to interfere with the natural order.

8 Legalism Legalism proposed that human beings are evil by nature
Referred to as the “School of Law” Rejected Confucian view that government by “superior men” could solve society’s problems. Believed a strong ruler was required to create an orderly society Believed only harsh laws and stiff punishments would cause the common people to serve the interest of the ruler.

9 Section 2: The Qin Unify China

10 The Qin Dynasty From 400-221 BC China experienced a bloody civil war
Chinese states fought each other Qin Dynasty gradually defeated the rivals Qin declared themselves a new dynasty

11 Qin Shihuangdi Ruler of Qin Dynasty Considered the “First Qin Emperor”
Came to the throne at 13 Defeated rivals and founded a new dynasty

12 Qualities of Qin Shihuangdi
He united all of China Created a single monetary system Ordered building of roads throughout the entire empire Reduced the powers of the landed aristocrats Divided aristocrats estates and gave the land to peasants Eliminated possible rivals Gained tax revenues for the central government

13 Shihuangdi’S army Left behind a pit (burial mound)
In the burial ground there were thousands of terra-cotta soldiers- recreation of his imperial guard Figures were slightly larger than life-size



16 The Great wALL Shihuangdi believed that there was a foreign concern in the north Nomadic people lived in the north Nomadic people= Xiongnu people; seen as a threat To keep these people out, put up a wall Originally called The Wall of Ten Thousand Li We know it as the Great Wall of China today




20 The Great Wall of China Most of it is built of loose stone, sand, or piled rubble Many died in the course of building According to legend, those who lost their lives are buried within the wall

21 Politics of the Qin Dynasty
Legalism was adopted as the official ideology of the regime Those who opposed the policies of the new regime were punished or executed Qin Dynasty was highly centralized Central bureaucracy was divided into three divisions: Civil division Military division Censorate

22 Section 3: The Han Dynasty

23 The Han Dynasty Founder: Liu Pang- was a peasant
Gained title Han Gaozu- Exalted Emperor of Han Was a very strong ruler

24 Political Structures Abandoned use of cruel and unusual punishment
Adopted Confucian ideals Division of central government into three ministries: Military Civil service Censorate Han rulers kept the system of local government that divided the empire into provinces and counties

25 Political Structures Han rulers continued the Qin system of choosing government officials on the basis of merit rather than birth Introduced civil service examination Students were expected to learn the teachings of Confucius, as well as Chinese history and law Population increased rapidly- went from 20 million to more than 60 million Growing population meant a need for an efficient bureaucracy Expanded the empire- now parts of Vietnam, along the South China Sea became part of the Chinese Empire

26 Society in the Han Empire
Free peasants began to suffer Land taxes on land-owning farmers were light but demands like military service impacted all of society Poor peasants were forced to sell their land and become tenant farmers, paying up to half of the annual harvest in rent Emphasis on the family structure Family was the basic economic unit and the basic social unit for education and training in morals Major expansion in trade and manufacturing Trade occurred through the Silk Road


28 Technology and culture
Trade= economic prosperity Iron casting led to invention of steel Ships could sail with the wind

29 Fall of Han Dynasty Weak rulers
Rulers were too concerned with pleasures of life Wealthy were corrupt Population decline Peasant uprising Civil war

Download ppt "THE first Chinese empires"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google