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Matter I. States of Matter  Kinetic Molecular Theory  States of Matter.

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Presentation on theme: "Matter I. States of Matter  Kinetic Molecular Theory  States of Matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter I. States of Matter  Kinetic Molecular Theory  States of Matter

2 A. Kinetic Molecular Theory  KMT  Particles of matter are always in motion.  The kinetic energy (speed) of these particles increases as temperature increases.

3 B. Four States of Matter  Solids  very low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around  fixed shape  fixed volume

4 B. Four States of Matter  Liquids  low KE - particles can move around but are still close together  variable shape  fixed volume

5 B. Four States of Matter  Gases  high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container  variable shape  variable volume

6 B. Four States of Matter  Plasma  very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-)  gas-like, variable shape & volume  stars, fluorescent light bulbs, CRTs

7 Matter II. Classification of Matter  Matter Flowchart  Pure Substances  Mixtures

8 A. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous MixtureCompoundElement MIXTUREPURE SUBSTANCE yesno Can it be chemically decomposed? noyes Is the composition uniform? noyes ColloidsSuspensions

9 A. Matter Flowchart  Examples:  graphite  pepper  sugar (sucrose)  paint  soda element hetero. mixture compound hetero. mixture solution

10 B. Pure Substances  Element  composed of identical atoms  EX: copper wire, aluminum foil

11 B. Pure Substances  Compound  composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio  properties differ from those of individual elements  EX: table salt (NaCl)

12 B. Pure Substances  Law of Definite Composition  A given compound always contains the same, fixed ratio of elements.  Law of Multiple Proportions  Elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds.

13 B. Pure Substances  For example… Two different compounds, each has a definite composition.

14 C. Mixtures  Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances. HeterogeneousHomogeneous

15 C. Mixtures  Solution  homogeneous  very small particles  no Tyndall effect Tyndall Effect  particles don’t settle  EX: rubbing alcohol

16 C. Mixtures  Colloid  heterogeneous  medium-sized particles  Tyndall effect  particles don’t settle  EX: milk

17 C. Mixtures  Suspension  heterogeneous  large particles  Tyndall effect  particles settle  EX:fresh-squeezed lemonade

18 C. Mixtures  Examples:  mayonnaise  muddy water  fog  saltwater  Italian salad dressing colloid suspension colloid solution suspension

19 Matter III. Properties & Changes in Matter  Extensive vs. Intensive  Physical vs. Chemical

20 A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Extensive Property  depends on the amount of matter present  Intensive Property  depends on the identity of substance, not the amount

21 A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Examples:  boiling point  volume  mass  density  conductivity intensive extensive intensive

22 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Property  can be observed without changing the identity of the substance  Chemical Property  describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity

23 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  melting point  flammable  density  magnetic  tarnishes in air physical chemical physical chemical

24 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Change  changes the form of a substance without changing its identity  properties remain the same  Chemical Change  changes the identity of a substance  products have different properties

25 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Signs of a Chemical Change  change in color or odor  formation of a gas  formation of a precipitate (solid)  change in light or heat

26 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  rusting iron  dissolving in water  burning a log  melting ice  grinding spices chemical physical chemical physical

27 Matter IV. Phase Changes  Phase Changes  Phase Change Diagrams

28 Phase Changes  Are Physical Changes  Most substances can exist in 3 states (Solid, Liquid, Gas)  Temperature and pressure determine the state of matter.

29 Phase Changes  States of matter are called Phases when they exist together as physically different parts of a mixture.  For example: Ice water is a heterogeneous mixture of 2 phases – it exists as a liquid and a solid together.  When energy is added or removed, one phase can change into another

30 Phase Changes Requiring Energy  Melting – solid to liquid  Vaporization – liquid to a gas  Sublimation – solid to gas  These phase changes require energy to be added to the system.

31 Phase Changes the Release Energy  Condensation – gas to liquid  Deposition – gas to solid  Freezing – liquid to solid  These phase changes require energy to be removed from the system.

32 Phase Diagrams  Phase diagram shows phase of matter at different temperatures and pressures  Each substance unique  There is usually a “Triple Point” where all three phases can coexist  “Critical Point” – temperature and pressure at which above substance cannot exist as liquid

33 Phase Diagram - Water

34 Phase Diagram CO 2

35 Matter V. Separation Techniques  Filtration  Chromotography  Distillation

36 Filtration  To separate an insoluble solid from a liquid. The solid remains in the filter paper and the liquid goes through the paper into the beaker.

37 Chromotography  Used to separate small amounts of liquids from each other, such as to separate different colored dyes that make up the ink in a marker.  Some dyes are more soluble than others, the dyes travel up the chromatography paper at different distances.  The more soluble dyes move further up the paper than the less soluble ones, and you can see the separation of the colors.

38  Is used to separate and collect a liquid from the solid that is dissolved in it.  The solution is heated in a flask until the liquid boils.  The gas produced passes into the condenser where it is cooled and condenses to a liquid.  The pure liquid (distillate) is collected in a beaker. Distillation

39 Other Separation Techniques  Evaporation – Is used to separate and collect a soluble solid out of a liquid it is dissolved in. The solution is heated until the liquid boils. When the liquid has boiled away, the solid remains.  Magnetism – To separate a magnetic particle from a non-magnetic particle. A strong magnet is passed over the mixture, which collects the magnetic particle and leaves the other particle(s) behind.

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