Presentation on theme: " Intelligence is a concept not a “thing”. We refer to peoples IQ as a trait like Height. That error of reasoning is called reification. Psychologist."— Presentation transcript:
Intelligence is a concept not a “thing”. We refer to peoples IQ as a trait like Height. That error of reasoning is called reification. Psychologist also debate if intelligence is a single overall ability or several specific abilities?
To find out if Intelligence is a general ability factor that runs throughout our specific mental abilities a procedure called Factor Analysis must occur. Charles Spearman believed that there was also a General Intelligence. Although people stand out, those who score high on one factor typically score higher on other factors.
Howard Gardner felt that we do not have an intelligence but multiple intelligences. To support this theory Gardner studied people with exceptional abilities, including those who only excel in one. For example people with Savant syndrome. 4 to 5 people with Savant Syndrome are males and may also have Autism.
Robert Sternberg Agrees with Gardner’s idea of multiple Intelligence but distinguishes 3 not 8. Analytical (academic problem-solving) Intelligence Creative Intelligence Practical Intelligence
Psychologist wondered why high aptitude people are not effective in successfully raising children or achieving better marriages? The answers lies with Emotional Intelligence. Example 5 year olds who most accurately discerned emotions became 9 year olds who easily made friends.
Psychologist noted that people who do well on intelligence test typically do well on creativity test. There are 5 components of Creativity beyond a minimal level of aptitude Expertise Imaginative Thinking Skills A Venturesome Personality Intrinsic Motivation A Creative Environment
Alfred Binet was commissioned to study children with special needs. Binet felt that children who where considered “dull” performed as a typical younger child, and those considered “bright” performed as an older child. Alfred Binet set out to measure a Childs mental age.
Lewis Terman adapted binet’s original terms, added others, established new age norms, and extended the test range. This created the Stanford-Binet. From this test William Stern Derived the famous Intelligence Quotient
Both assess ability and development. The most widely used intelligence test is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence.
The only way to score your IQ is to compare it to a pretested group, this Standardization forms a normal distribution also called a Normal Curve.
The higher the correlation between Test-retakes or Split- Half scores the higher the test Reliability. The Stanford-binet, WAIS, and WISC all have reliabilities of +9 which is very high
High reliability does not ensure a test’s Validity. If you use inaccurate tests the reliability of high scores would be high but the validity would be low. Content Validity provide questions that everyone would have to face. Other test are evaluated in terms of Criterion. For Example aptitude test must have Predictive Validity.
People whose intelligence test scores fall at 70 or below are labeled as having Mental Retardation. 1% of the population is Mentally Retarded with males outnumbering the woman 2:1. associated with mental retardation is Down Syndrome.
Stereotype Threats effect a way a person takes a test. Example: when given a hard math test men performed well, but the women did not because they where led to believe that women are better test takers then men. This caused an affect on the woman’s performance.