Geographical Setting and Natural Barriers Egyptians –Nile River –Nubian and Libyan Deserts –Mediterranean and Red Seas –Cataracts –Well Protected
Civilizations Egyptian – Old Kingdom Pharaohs Pyramid Age, Sphinx Menes - United Upper and Lower Egypt Nobility grew stronger, weakened Pharaoh's power – Middle Kingdom “Golden Age” Prosperity and Stability, Increased trade Nobility grows strong again – New Kingdom Power and Size at its peak Great Pharaohs – regain absolute power Strong army, gained land Built and empire - Ruling over other ethnic groups.
Religion Egyptian – Polytheistic Many Gods Amon Re - Sun God Osiris - God of Nile – Judged you in the afterlife Gods associated with animals – Mummification – preparation for the afterlife – Afterlife – at first only for pharaoh, later believed for everyone. Eternal happiness or Eater of the Dead Book of the Dead – guide for the afterlife – Monotheistic Akhenaton One God -> Aton
Government Egyptians – Dynasties Family of rulers Menes was the first – Pharaoh means ‘Great House’ Absolute control, ruler & owner of all, controlled trade – Area split into Provinces Officials were of Noble Class Collected taxes
Leaders Egyptians –Pharaohs - religious and political leaders –Menes - United Egypt –Queen Hatshepsut First known female ruler –Akhenaton - Monotheism –Tutankhamen. Returned to polytheism –Ramses II Revived the Empire Last Great Pharaoh Built Temples and monuments –Cleopatra - Last Pharaoh
Language Egyptians –Hieroglyphics About 3000 BCE Carved in stone Written by Priests Scribes – read &write –Worked for church and govt. Over 600 symbols –Papyrus used to make paper –Rosetta Stone Translate Hieroglyphics – 1798 Hieroglyphics, Greek and Demonic
Social Classes Egyptians – Ruling class Pharaohs Priests Nobles/Govt. Officials – Lower Class Peasant farmers – owed service – Army or labor –Women relatively equal status to men. Could own property –Later a merchant class emerges –Could improve status but not change class.
Achievements choose 3 to put in notes Egyptians – Hieroglyphics – Engineering Skills used to build Pyramids, Tombs, Canals – Land Surveying – 365 day Calendar – Medical Advances Surgery Setting of Bones –Chariot, Compound bow –Mined copper, made Bronze –Sculpture, pottery –Numbers – based on 10 Hyksos Charioteer