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Unit 2 Ancient Civilizations Egypt, India, Middle East and China.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Ancient Civilizations Egypt, India, Middle East and China."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2 Ancient Civilizations Egypt, India, Middle East and China

2 Egyptian – 6000 B.C. E Started farming – 4000 B.C.E. - 300 B.C.E. Major settlements Dates of Civilization

3 Major Rivers Egyptians – Nile

4 Geographical Setting and Natural Barriers Egyptians –Nile River –Nubian and Libyan Deserts –Mediterranean and Red Seas –Cataracts –Well Protected

5 Civilizations Egyptian – Old Kingdom Pharaohs Pyramid Age, Sphinx Menes - United Upper and Lower Egypt Nobility grew stronger, weakened Pharaoh's power – Middle Kingdom “Golden Age” Prosperity and Stability, Increased trade Nobility grows strong again – New Kingdom Power and Size at its peak Great Pharaohs – regain absolute power Strong army, gained land Built and empire - Ruling over other ethnic groups.

6 Religion Egyptian – Polytheistic Many Gods Amon Re - Sun God Osiris - God of Nile – Judged you in the afterlife Gods associated with animals – Mummification – preparation for the afterlife – Afterlife – at first only for pharaoh, later believed for everyone. Eternal happiness or Eater of the Dead Book of the Dead – guide for the afterlife – Monotheistic Akhenaton One God -> Aton

7 Government Egyptians – Dynasties Family of rulers Menes was the first – Pharaoh means ‘Great House’ Absolute control, ruler & owner of all, controlled trade – Area split into Provinces Officials were of Noble Class Collected taxes

8 Leaders Egyptians –Pharaohs - religious and political leaders –Menes - United Egypt –Queen Hatshepsut First known female ruler –Akhenaton - Monotheism –Tutankhamen. Returned to polytheism –Ramses II Revived the Empire Last Great Pharaoh Built Temples and monuments –Cleopatra - Last Pharaoh

9 Language Egyptians –Hieroglyphics About 3000 BCE Carved in stone Written by Priests Scribes – read &write –Worked for church and govt. Over 600 symbols –Papyrus used to make paper –Rosetta Stone Translate Hieroglyphics – 1798 Hieroglyphics, Greek and Demonic

10 Social Classes Egyptians – Ruling class Pharaohs Priests Nobles/Govt. Officials – Lower Class Peasant farmers – owed service – Army or labor –Women relatively equal status to men. Could own property –Later a merchant class emerges –Could improve status but not change class.

11 Achievements choose 3 to put in notes Egyptians – Hieroglyphics – Engineering Skills used to build Pyramids, Tombs, Canals – Land Surveying – 365 day Calendar – Medical Advances Surgery Setting of Bones –Chariot, Compound bow –Mined copper, made Bronze –Sculpture, pottery –Numbers – based on 10 Hyksos Charioteer

12 The End

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