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What is research? Based on Ranjit Kumar “Research methodology: a step-by-step guide for beginners”, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "What is research? Based on Ranjit Kumar “Research methodology: a step-by-step guide for beginners”, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is research? Based on Ranjit Kumar “Research methodology: a step-by-step guide for beginners”, 2005

2 Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable a scientific methodology to solve problems and creates new knowledge that is generally applicable (Grinnell, 1993) A systematic investigation to find answer to a problem (Burns, 1994) Scientific research is a systematic, controlled empirical and critical investigation of propositions about the presumed relationships about various phenomena (Kerlinger, 1986)

3 Characteristics of research
Controlled (separate causes-effects relationship of specific factors from others) Rigorous (procedure is relevant, appropriate and justified) Systematic (logical sequences) Valid and verifiable (the conclusions) Empirical (real-life experiences or observations) Critical (the procedures used must be able to withstand critical scrutiny)

4 Type of research Three perspectives Application Objectives
Inquiry mode Pure research Applied research Descriptive Exploratory Correlational Explanatory Quantitative Qualitative

5 Pure vs Applied Research
FUNDAMENTAL (BASIC OR PURE) Concerned with generalizations & formulation of theory Knowledge for knowledge’s sake (I.e., pure or basic research) APPLIED Finding a solution for an immediate problem & not rigorous / flexible in application of the conditions

6 Descriptive, Exploratory, Correlational and Explanatory
DESCRIPTIVE/ SURVEY (EX-POST FACTO) Surveys & fact-finding enquiries State of affairs as it exists No control over variables Try to discover causes (I.e., ex- post facto) Exploratory vs Formulated (the degree of formulation of the problem) studies

7 Correlational Explanatory Relationship between two or more variables
Various forms of relationship (one-way, two-way or multi-dimensions) Explanatory Analytical based on available information or facts Explain situations status

8 Quantitative vs Qualitative
Measured & expressed in terms of quantity Expression of a property or quantity in numerical terms Quantitative research helps: Precise measurement Knowing trends or changes overtime Comparing trends or individual units QUALITATIVE Involves quality or kind Helps in having insight into problems or cases

9 The research method/process
An eight-step model 1. formulating a research problem 2. conceptualizing a research design 3. Constructing an instrument for data collection 4. selecting a sample 5. writing a research proposal 6. collecting data 7. processing data 8. writing a research report This is a logical step that should not over jump

10 The research method/process
4-stage/10-step model: Preparation stage 1. define issues/problems, topics/ subjects 2. review literature, theories/concepts 3. Conceptualize the study Design stage 4. modeling 5. develop hypotheses 6. define variables Operation stage 7. data collection 8. process/analyse data 9. testing hypothesis Report research results 10. report the results of the study This is a logical step that should not over jump

11 Qualities of Good Research
1. Purpose/ objectives clearly defined in common concepts 2. Procedure enumerated to keep continuity 3. Carefully planned design leading to objective results 4. Complete frankness; flaws reported and their effect estimated 5. Adequate analysis of data with appropriate methods of analysis 6. Carefully checked data for validity & reliability 7. Conclusions confined to those justified by the data 8. Confidence, competence/ reputation, experience, honesty & integrity of researcher

12 Qualities of Good Research contd..
1. SYSTEMATIC - Reject the use of guessing & intuition, but does not rule out creative thinking 2. CONTROLLED – Variables are identified & controlled, wherever possible 3. LOGICAL - Guided by rules of logical reasoning & logical process of induction & deduction 4. EMPIRICAL- Provides a basis for external validity to results (validation) 5. REPLICABLE - Verified by replicating the study 6. SELF CORRECTING - Built in mechanism & open to public scrutiny by fellow professionals

13 What do we need to do research
Understanding the basic concept Interest, interest and interest Curiosity, curiosity and curiosity Enthusiastic, enthusiastic and enthusiastic Practicing, practicing and practicing Let’s see examples

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