Legacies of Harappan Civilization Beginning of civilization in South Asia. First city planning ever (grid pattern)
Legacies of Early Aryan Civilization Varna system (caste system) Hinduism Buddhism Source of modern Indian culture
Legacies of the Maurya Empire First government to unite most of India Chandragupta’s achievements: Organized government, court systems, secret police, women warriors as guards Asoka’s achievements: Rejection of violence, spread of Buddhism, preaching religious tolerance, stone pillars offering moral advice and promising a just government (called the Rock Edicts)
Legacies of the Gupta Empire Second time India under one government India’s Golden Age: Peace, prosperity, flowering in the arts and learning Arabic numerals, concept of zero, decimal system Medical advances Literature (Shakuntala)
Legacies of the Mughal Empire Muslim rule – Islam and Hinduism from now on the two main religions of India Akbar’s achievements: promotion of religious tolerance Nur Jahan – ruled for her husband, most powerful Indian woman until the 20 th century Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan Trade leading to British imperialism Weaknesses leading to British imperialism
What are the historical reasons for the current religious conflicts in South Asia?
Why might Hindus and Muslims not get along? Hindus polytheistic while Muslims monotheistic Many sacred texts in Hinduism, while there is only the Quran in Islam Caste system in Hinduism, while Muslims believe in equality before God Differences in worship – music and dance in Hindus celebrations, not in Islamic
What events might have caused current conflicts between Hindus and Muslims? Killing of Hindus when Muslims invaded India Rule by Muslims during Mughal Empire Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim princes during empire’s decline