Presentation on theme: "Colonies Become Nations Chapter 18. India: Move to Independence 1939 Britain commits India to fight in WWII without consulting India 350 million mostly."— Presentation transcript:
India: Move to Independence 1939 Britain commits India to fight in WWII without consulting India 350 million mostly Hindus in “The Indian National Congress Party” or Congress Party (the party of Gandhi) 100 million Muslims in the Muslim League which was led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muslim League did not want to be governed by Hindus
Freedom; Partition and Bloodshed WWII leaves Britain broke and wants to shed India 1947 Britain decided to partition India into separate nations—India for Hindus and Pakistan for Muslims Originally there was an East Pakistan and a West Pakistan As people tried to move to their new countries rioting and violence left one million dead.
Modern India August 15, 1947—India becomes the world’s largest democracy Jawaharlal Nehru elected first prime minister Serves for 17 years Was a popular and able leader Organized non-aligned nations during Cold War Dies in 1964 and India has no strong leader
1966 Nehru’s daughter elected prime minister. She was reelected in 1980 Sikhs wanted independent state. Indira Gandhi’s government put down Sikh violence by raiding the Golden Temple (a Sikh holy place) and killing 500 Sikhs Indira Gandhi’s Sikh bodyguards killed her in 1984
Rajiv Gandhi Indira’s son took over He was killed by a bomb while campaigning in 1991
21 st Century Challenges 1998 Atal Bihari Vajpayee elected prime minister India is set to become most populous nation by 2035 It has poor relations with Pakistan India and Pakistan both have nuclear weapons and this is a great concern to the rest of the world.
Pakistan Copes with Freedom East and West Pakistan separated by 1000 miles. West Pakistan contained the central government East Pakistan felt left out. March 26, 1971 East Pakistan declares itself the new nation of Bangladesh. The following civil war was stopped when Indian troops helped Bangladesh win.
Instability Pakistan had little leadership after Muhammad Ali Jinnah dies shortly after independence In 1958 Ali Bhutto seized power after the civil war 1977 Gen. Zia uses coup to remove and execute Bhutto Bhutto’s daughter, Benazir Bhutto was twice elected prime minister but removed from office in 1996 by Nawaz Sharif. Bhutto left Pakistan but returned to run for office and was assasinated.