I. What is History? A. History is the study of the past. B. Historians are people who study history. 1. Questions they ask. a. How did people live? ( work, fight, trade, farm, worship) b. Why did they make certain choices? c. How did they solve problems? 2. Historians study culture: the knowledge, beliefs, customs, and values of a group of people.
II. What is Archaeology? A. Archaeology is the study of the past based on what people left behind. B. Archaeologists study places and things. 1. Examples: ruins, jewelry, tools, pottery, etc. Dr. Zahi Hawass
III. Tools of Historians and Archaeologists A. Fossils: a part or imprint of something that was once alive. Example: bone B. Artifacts: objects created and used by humans. Example: pottery C. Primary Source: is an account of an event created by someone who took part in or witnessed the event. Example: Journal Entry D. Secondary Source: is information gathered by someone who did not take part in or witness the event. Example: Textbook E. Geography: Historians study the geography of an area (climate, landforms, resources, and environment) to help understand how cultures developed and lived in certain areas
Page H3-H5 Use your textbook to find the following “tools.” Write down the page number. ToolType of Source (Primary or Secondary) Page Number Document Artifact Map Photograph Painting or Drawing
I. Prehistory- the time before there was writing. II. Early Humans- there are many theories about early humans and how people came to be. You may be interested in researching some of these theories. III. The Stone Age is the name that historians give to the time before recorded history. It is divided into three eras, or time periods. They are: a. Paleolithic Era b. Mesolithic Era c. Neolithic Era
IV. Stone Age People A. In the Stone Ages people used stone tools 1. Tool : is any handheld object that has been modified to help a person accomplish a task. 2. In the Paleolithic Era people used rocks as tools to process food by cutting, chopping, or scraping. B. Hunter-Gatherer Societies 1. Society- is a community of people who share a common culture. 2. Hunter-Gatherers: people who hunt animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive.
3. How they lived: a. These early people lived in small groups. b. They were nomads-they moved from place to place to find shelter and food. 4. Language, Art, and Religion a. Language was developed in this era. b. Carvings. c. Cave Paintings (animals, humans, and hand prints) d. Scientists are not sure if they had religion.
I. Paleolithic Era or Old Stone Age (began 2 million years ago; ended about 10,000 years ago.) A. During this era there were long periods of freezing weather (in some areas) called the Ice Ages. B. Due to climate changes people had to move, or migrate because food was scarce. 1. Scarcity: not enough of a resource.
C. During one ice age, a strip of land between Asia and North America was exposed called the Bering Strait. 1. Land bridges allowed people to migrate around the world. 2. As people migrated they had to adapt to new environments. 3. Then, the weather warmed again, and the land bridges disappeared, under water.
II. The Mesolithic Era or Middle Stone Age (ended about 3000 BC) III. New Tools and Technologies a. The Mesolithic people used new tools that were smaller and more complex than those from the Old Stone Age. 1. Bone and Stone tools with handles. 2. Fishing hooks and spears 3. Bow and arrow 4. Learned to make canoes 5. Began to make pottery 6. Pets 7. Better clothing and shelter b. Learned to control fire.
HOTQ #1: How did scarcity contribute to migration in the Stone Age? HOTQ #2: What new technology made life easier in the Mesolithic Era?
I. Neolithic Era and First Farmers a. The Neolithic Era or New Stone Age was different than the other eras because it was a time of major changes affecting human life. II. New Tools and Technology a. People began using polished stones to make saws and drills. b. People learned how to make FIRE. c. Eventually, people learned how to make tools out of metal, this ended the Neolithic Era.
E. Farming and having a stable food supply changed society as people had more time to do other activities than just finding food. 1. Learned how to make cloth from wool and plants and began trading with one another. 2. Built permanent shelters and communities 3. Populations grew 4. Religious ceremonies became more common. 5. Megaliths or huge stone monuments were built. a. Example: Stonehenge in England. 6. People began to worship gods and goddesses based on nature, and their ancestors.
7. New jobs were created. a. Farmers b. Weavers c. Basket makers d. Toolmakers e. Traders f. Stoneworkers (jewelry, mirrors) g. Potters decorated baskets and pottery with shapes.
3 Eras Directions: For each list below write in the Era of the Stone Age that matches. 1. Made Fire, learned to farm, lived in villages, domesticated plants and animals. 2. simple stone tools, migrated on the land bridge, hunted and gathered, nomadic 3. bone and stone tools with handles, better clothing and shelter, learned to make canoes, used fishing hooks and spears. ANSWERS 1. Neolithic Era 2. Paleolithic Era 3. Mesolithic Era Word Bank Paleolithic EraMesolithic EraNeolithic Era