6 Recessive X-linked Traits Occurs mostly in malesColorblindnessHemophiliaImpairs the ability of the blood to clot after a cut, bruise, or other injuryDuchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)Lack of skeletal muscle
7 Sex Linked Traits Xn Y XN XN X XN Y Xn Xn Xn Normal eye sight - XN Color Blind - XnXnYXNXNXXNYXnXnXnXnYn
8 Single-Allele Traits Traits that are controlled by a single allele Dominant single-allele traitsHuntington’s diseaseSome early symptoms of HD are mood swings, depression, irritability or trouble driving, learning new thingsAs the disease progresses, difficulty feeding himself or herself and swallowing
9 Single Allele trait Recessive single-allele trait Cystic Fibrosis An inherited disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract.Most people with cystic fibrosis died in their teens.
10 Single Allele trait Recessive single-allele trait Sickle cell anemia Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen.Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S.Hemoglobin S distorts the shape of red blood cells, especially when there is low oxygen.
12 Single Allele trait Recessive single-allele trait Phenylketonuria (PKU)Accumulation of phenylalanine in tissues. Lack of normal skin pigment and can cause mental retardationTay-Sach’s DiseaseLipid accumulation in brain cells(CNS), mental deficiency. Death in early childhood
13 Other types Multiple alleles (polygenetic) ABO Blood Typing Hair Color Eye ColorHeightSkin Tone
14 Pleiotropy occurs when a single gene influences multiple phenotypic traits.
15 Chromosomal Disorders Down syndrome –Trisomy 21 or 3 copies of the 21st chromosomeTurner’s syndrome –One X chromosome, usually called (45,X) Sterile
16 Chromosomal disorders Fragile X syndromeMost common mental impairmentKlinefelter’s SyndromeMore than one X chromosomeSterile
17 Pedigree Analysis Have you ever seen a family tree… do you have one?? Pedigree of Queen VictoriaHave you ever seen a family tree… do you have one??Graphic representation of family inheritance.
18 Why would we want to use a pedigree in genetics? What is a pedigree?Shows a pattern of inheritance in a family for a specific trait (phenotype)Genotypes can usually be determinedWhy would we want to use a pedigree in genetics?Track the occurrence of diseases such as:Huntington’s – simple dominant – lethal allele – causes breakdown of the brainCystic fibrosis – 1/2500 – mucus accumulates (white North Amer.)Tay-Sachs disease – lipids accumulate in CNS (Jewish)Phenylketonuria – missing enzyme causes problems in CNS (Nordic/Swedish)
20 Sample pedigree: generations are numbered with Roman Numerals oldest offspring are on the leftHow many males are present? How many females?How many females show the trait being studied?What is the sex of offspring III-9?How many offspring did the generation I parents have?What is the difference between the II-3 & 4 and IV-2 & 3?
21 Inheritance patterns: Autosomal dominant:The disease is passed from the father to the son, this never happens with X-linked traits. The disease occurs in three consecutive generations, this never happens with recessive traits. Males and females are affected, with roughly the same probability.Examples: PolydactylyHuntington’s disease
22 Inheritance patterns: Autosomal recessiveMales and females are equally likely to be affected. The recurrence risk to the unborn sibling of an affected individual is 1/4. The trait is characteristically found in siblings, not parents of affected or the offspring of affected. Parents of affected children may be related. The rarer the trait in the general population, the more likely a consanguineous mating is involved.Cystic fibrosisTay-Sach’s disease
23 Inheritance patterns: Sex-linked recessive conditionsThe disease is never passed from father to son. Males are much more likely to be affected than females.All affected males in a family are related through their mothers. Trait or disease is typically passed from an affected grandfather, through his carrier daughters, to half of his grandsons.Examples:Color-blindnessDuchenne Muscular Dystrophy