3 POLL TAXA fee (money) people had to pay in order to vote in local, state, and national elections.Ended in 1964 with the 24th Amendment
4 POLL TAX for African Americans Kept from Voting:Not able to afford
5 LITERACY TESTS Testing a citizen’s ability to read and write Most were actually tests about governmentCommonly used in the USA, especially the “Jim Crow” era South, to keep non-Whites from voting
6 LITERACY TESTS for African Americans Kept from voting:No education – not literate, not know informationLocal agency scored tests as Failed regardless of performance
7 GRANDFATHER CLAUSEIt stated that all men or their descendants who were able to vote BEFORE 1867 did not have to meet the (Poll) tax, educational (Literacy Test), or property ownership requirements for voting.This clause let all white males vote while not allowing black men and other men of color to vote.It was created to try to get around the 15th Amendment.
8 GRANDFATHER CLAUSE for African Americans Kept from voting:Grandfathers were slavesGrandfathers not able to vote even if freed person of color
10 14th Amendment (1868)Provided citizenship rights to those born or naturalized in the USA.States could not make laws that take away a person’s rights.States must follow the same Due Process that the Federal government does.States must protect everyone the same way
11 EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE All US citizens are supposed to be protected by the State and Federal governments equally, no matter their race, color, religious beliefs, etc.Was supposed to end discrimination of blacks by the government.
12 15th Amendment (1870)Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.Designed to allow former slaves (called Freedmen) the right to voteDuring Reconstruction time period in the South many former Confederates and pro-slavery forces tried to stop former slaves from their right to voteAlso extended the right to vote to new immigrant groups that have come into the USA since the 1870’s
13 SEGREGATION The legal separation of the races It was most common in the post-Reconstruction Southern states
14 “JIM CROW” LAWS Laws common in the South after 1880. Required all non-Whites to use separate facilities.Some of these facilities included schools, water fountains, bathrooms, trains and buses
16 “Separate, but Equal” Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Homer Plessy, a Creole (7/8 white and 1/8 black-He had a black great grandparent), got on a Whites Only train car and was arrested.This was done on purpose
17 “Separate, but Equal” Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Pt. 2 He was arrested and tried in court.His lawyers appealed to the Supreme CourtThe Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and stated the famous phrase “Separate but equal”This meant that “Colored” people could be discriminated against as long as the facilities involved were “equal”This was a HUGE blow to civil rights for non-Whites in the USA and especially the SouthThis decision basically legalized “Jim Crow” laws
22 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
23 Brown v. BoardLinda Brown had to walk six blocks to catch a bus to take her to a “Blacks only” school a mile away.There was a “Whites only” school just seven blocks from her house.Her parents sued the district when she was refused enrollment in the “Whites only” school.
24 Brown v. Board Pt. 2 The case is argued by Thurgood Marshal. He would later go on to become the first African American Supreme Court Justice.The case overturned the Plessy decision and the Court ruled the separate was NOT equal.This paved the way for all public schools to become integrated (all colors could go there – also known as desegregation)
25 19th Amendment (1920)Women win the right to vote through the efforts of “Suffragettes”Suffragettes were women who fought for the right to voteThe battle for Women’s suffrage was going on at the same time in England and in the US
26 Sojourner TruthSusan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (seated)Many women could vote in Western States but could not vote back East, like these women in New York City
27 26th Amendment (1971) 18 year olds are given the right to vote The amendment was created in response to student protests about being drafted into the Army at 18 but not being able to vote for the Congressmen who sent them to war until they were 21.
28 REGISTER To sign up with the government to vote. You must be 18. You must be a US citizen to register.You can not be in jail or on parole in NJ.You must live in the state, county and town where you are registered.