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Politics of Immigration PS150A Dr. Saba Ozyurt

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1 Politics of Immigration PS150A Dr. Saba Ozyurt

2 What is International Migration? The movement of a person or group of persons from one geographical unit to another across an administrative or political border, wishing to settle definitely or temporarily in a place other than their place of origin (birth and/or citizenship)

3 Who is a Migrant? The UN defines migrant as a person who enters a country that is different from his/her country of origin for at least 12 months. Emigrant:Any person who leaves his/her country with the intention to reside in another Immigrant:From the perspective of the receiving country

4 Return Migration: The movement of a person returning to his/her country of origin after spending at lease one year in another country. Forced migration: A non-voluntary movement of a person wishing to escape an armed conflict or a situation of violence or a natural or man made disaster. This term applies to refugee movements.

5 Irregular migration: (Undocumented, illegal or clandestine) Movement of a person to a new destination through illegal means without valid documentation. Smuggling: Helping someone to enter a country illegally for financial benefits. Trafficking: Recruitment, transportation, and harboring of persons by means of threat or use of force with the purpose of exploitation.

6 Voluntary v.s. Forced Migration Voluntary migrants: Economic migrants Labor migrants Family reunification Forced migrants: Asylum seekers Refugees Displaced persons Environmental migrants

7 Scale of International Migration: Estimated Number of People Living Outside of Their Country of Birth or Citizenship: 1970: 82 million 1990: 120 million 2000: 175 million 2008: 200 million (67% increase, 1990- 2008) (Source: International Organization for Migration on World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration)

8 Some Facts : 1 out of every 35 people in the world, or 3% of world ’ s population 200 million estimated international migrants is more than the population of Brazil 8% of Europe ’ s population 13% of North America ’ s population 75% of population growth in USA (1995- 2000) 89% of population growth in Europe (1990- 2000)

9 Some Facts (Cont ’ d) Women account for 49% of international migrants Remittance flows: $450 billion globally (2008) 20 to 30 million unauthorized migrants worldwide, comprising around 10 to 15 % of the world's immigrant (2008)

10 U.S. unauthorized immigrant population (2005) Estimated number: 11 million = 30% of total foreign-born population Composition of unauthorized population: Clandestine entrants: 55% Visa over-stayers: 45% Source: Pew Hispanic Center, Washington, D.C.

11 Unauthorized migration: a global perspective Estimated 2.5 – 4 million migrants cross international borders illegally each year 500,000 undocumented migrants are estimated to arrive in Europe each year At least 10% of Europe ’ s immigrant population had “ irregular ” status in 2000

12 Some Facts (Cont ’ d) Refugees and asylum-seekers (“forced migrants”): 16 million worldwide (2008) Bosnian refugees, 1999

13 Migration in the Global and Comparative Context How has Globalization affected global migration patterns? How do scholars explain why people migrate (or don ’ t migrate) What are the consequences of increased population movements for sending and receiving countries?

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