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SPONGE 1.Finish this sentence: “To set up and operate a spinning mill required large amounts of…” (p. 331) 2.Define the term, “Capitalist.” (p. 331) Chapter 11, Section 1
Setting the Scene At dawn, the factory bell woke 11 year old Lucy Larcom. She quickly ate breakfast and ran to work at the factory. By the early 1800’s, busy factories and machinery had become a part of American life. This Industrial Revolution completely changed the way goods were made.
The Industrial Revolution Begins Before the 1800’s, most Americans were farmers and most goods were produced by hand. After the Industrial Revolution, machines replaced hand tools and new power sources like steam replaced animal power. Though most people still farmed, the economy began to rely more and more on manufacturing.
New Technology The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the mid 1700’s where inventors made new textile machines. Wheels had always been used to spin a single thread, but in 1764 James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny that could weave many threads at a time. A method using water to power a loom was also developed.
The Factory System The Industrial Revolution relied largely on the development of the Factory System. The Factory System brought workers and machinery together to produce goods instead of making goods at home. New larger spinning and weaving machines were placed in large mills and factories near rivers. The flowing water would power the textile machines.
The Factory System The first thing factory owners needed to set up a business was capital (money.) Capitalists supplied the money. Capitalists are people who invest money in a business to make a profit. Capitalists built factories and hired workers to run their machines.
A Revolution Crosses the Atlantic Britain wanted to keep its technology a secret, and passed laws to prevent sharing it. Samuel Slater, a skilled mechanic heard America was offering rewards for plans. In 1789, Slater left Britain with the plans memorized in his head. By 1793 he had built the first successful textile mill in the U.S. powered by water.
Interchangeable Parts Because all goods, like a gun for example, was made by hand each one was a little different. Only a blacksmith could repair broken devices. Eli Whitney made an important contribution when he had machines manufacture each part of a gun. Each part of a the gun was exactly the same and could be quickly replaced if damaged. These parts were called Interchangeable Parts. Soon nearly all devices had interchangeable parts.
Lowell, Massachusetts: A Model Factory Town During the War of 1812, American industry was given a huge boost because we were forced to make our own goods. Francis Cabot Lowell, a Boston merchant, combined spinning and weaving under one roof. After Lowell’s death his partners built an entire factory town in his honor.
Lowell, Massachusetts: A Model Factory Town Visitors called Lowell a model factory town because factory workers there lived in clean, decent housing. The mill companies usually hired women from nearby farms. The Lowell girls worked in the mills for a few years before returning home to marry. The work was hard but for the first time women became providers for their families and gained economic freedom.
Daily Life During the Industrial Revolution Mill owners hired mostly women and children because they would work long hours for half the pay. Boys and girls as young as 7 were useful because they could squeeze around the machinery. Work in the factory was not seen as much different than on the farm. Mill workers usually worked 12 hours a day, 6 days a week, year round (farmers had the winter off.)
Growing Cities During the Industrial Revolution many Americans left their farms to work in factories in the cities. Older cities expanded rapidly while new ones sprang up around factories. This movement of the population from the country to cities is called urbanization. By 1920 most Americans were living in cities.
Selected United States Cities, 1820 - 1840 New York Philadelphia Baltimore Boston Cities Population (in the thousands) 320 280 240 200 160 120 80 40 0 The Industrial Revolution led to i ncreased urbanization in the U.S.
Growing Cities Cities had many problems; there were no sewers and people threw garbage in the street. Disease like cholera and influenza spread quickly, killing thousands. There were attractions too. Theatres, museums and circuses created an air of excitement. People could shop for the latest fashions from Europe.