Presentation on theme: "Daily Entry 1. How do you feel about humans being genetically modified to be smart? Athletic? Pretty? 2. What would be pro and cons of this technique?"— Presentation transcript:
Recombinant DNA The ability to combine the DNA of one organism with the DNA of another organism. Recombinant DNA technology was first used in the 1970’s with bacteria.
Recombinant Bacteria 1.Remove bacterial DNA (plasmid). 2.Cut the Bacterial DNA with “restriction enzymes”. 3.Cut the DNA from another organism with “restriction enzymes”. 4.Combine the cut pieces of DNA together with another enzyme and insert them into bacteria. 5.Reproduce the recombinant bacteria. 6.The foreign genes will be expressed in the bacteria.
Isolation of DNA Restriction enzymes – bacterial proteins that can cut both strand of DNA at a specific sequence –Blunt ends –Sticky ends *Vector means in which DNA is carried into the host cell can be a virus or plasmid
Benefits of Recombinant Bacteria 1.Bacteria can make human insulin or human growth hormone. 2.Bacteria can be engineered to “eat” oil spills.
1. Transgenic Organisms Contain foreign DNA due to recombinant DNA engineering How? –1. Isolate the foreign DNA fragment –2. Attach the fragment to a carrier –3. Transfer into the host
Golden Rice Genes from daffodils and bacteria Produce beta carotene
Factor VIII Clotting factor for hemophiliacs Without the use of blood donors
Human DNA in a Goat Cell This goat contains a human gene that codes for a blood clotting agent. The blood clotting agent can be harvested in the goat’s milk.. Transgenic Goat
Genetically modified organisms are called transgenic organisms TRANSGENIC ANIMALS 1.Mice – used to study human immune system 2.Chickens – more resistant to infections 3.Cows – increase milk supply and leaner meat 4.Goats, sheep and pigs – produce human proteins in their milk and meats
Desired DNA is added to an egg cell. How to Create a Transgenic Animal
2.Cloning Genetically identical copies Most famous animal cloned: Dolly Benefits: could clone productive, healthy animals Why is this a positive?
DEFINITIONS CLONE –A cell, group of cells, or organism that is descended from and genetically identical to a single ancestor. CLONING –To make multiple identical copies of a DNA sequence.
USEFULNESS Cloning can be used to test for genetic diseases Regenerate nerves or spinal cord tissue Help in plastic surgery Clone organs for transplantation Grow skin grafts for burn victims Manufacture bone, fat, and cartilage
Cloning Defined What is cloning? Asexual reproduction-mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only Examples: Bacteria, fungus Plants – cutting – potato Farm animals
Asexual Reproduction The Association of Reproductive Health Professionals
Cloning Dolly 1997 - 2003 (Roslin Institute http://www.roslin.ac.uk/library/)
Cloning A Sheep (Roslin Institute http://www.roslin.ac.uk/library/)
3.Human Genome Project Map and sequence all of the genes on your 46 chromosomes Linkage map – relative locations of genes on chromosomes
Applications of the Project Prenatal diagnosis of human disorders Gene therapy – inserting normal genes into human cells to correct disorders Crime detection
4.DNA Fingerprinting Uses: convict or acquit criminals, paternity test, and identifying and cataloging species No two individuals have the same DNA sequence except identical twins
Steps: –1. DNA sample –2. Cut into fragments by enzymes….What kind?? –3. Fragments separated by gel electrophoresis by size –4. Compare samples