Presentation on theme: "The Human World Chapter 4. Elements of culture: –All human groups have a culture. Each culture has shared and unique sets of behaviors and attitudes –Language."— Presentation transcript:
Elements of culture: –All human groups have a culture. Each culture has shared and unique sets of behaviors and attitudes –Language and religion are a part of culture.
Cultural Diffusion –The process of spreading knowledge from one culture to another.
Cultural Hearth –A site from which basic ideas, materials, & technology diffuse to many other cultures
Acculturation –When a society changes because it accepts an innovation
Religion –Is a belief in a supernatural power that is regarded as the creator of the universe
Monotheism –Is a belief in one God Ex: Christianity, Judaism, Islam
Polytheism –Is a belief in many Gods Ex: Hinduism
Population Geography: –The world’s population is expanding rapidly. –Most of the world’s population lives in the Northern Hemisphere.
Birthrate –The number of live births per thousand
Mortality Rate (Death Rate) –The number of deaths per thousand
Infant Mortality Rate –The number of deaths per thousand of infants under the age of 1
Rate of natural increase (Population growth rate) –The rate at which the population is growing
Population Pyramid –A graphic device that shows sex and age distribution of a population
Push-Pull Factors –Push Factors cause people to leave their home and migrate to another region (ex: War, Natural Disasters, Genocide Etc…) –Pull Factors attract people to a location (ex: job opportunities etc…)
Population Density –The average number of people who live in an area (usually a square mile)
Carrying Capacity –The number of organisms a piece of land can support
Political Geography –Size, shape, and location influence political geography. –States of the world have a variety of political systems.
State –An independent political unit (a country)
Nation –A group of people living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity.
Nation-State –When a nation and a state occupy the same territory
Landlocked –A country surrounded by land with no direct access to the sea
Democracy –A political system in which the citizens hold all the power
Monarchy –A political system in which a king or queen holds the power and may or may not share that power with the citizens
Dictatorship –A political system in which one person or a small group holds all political power
Communism –A political system in which the government controls everything including the economy
Economic Geography –Resources, available technology, and economic systems shape the economy of a state. –Economic activities are based on how goods or services are produced and traded.
GDP (Gross Domestic Product) –GDP gives the total value of all goods and services produced within a country in a specific period of time.
Command Economy –An economic system in which the government plans and controls the economy.
Market Economy –An economic system in which consumer demand controls the market.
Primary Economic Activities –Involves gathering raw materials
Secondary Economic Activities –Involves manufacturing products using raw materials
Natural Resources –Materials found on or in the Earth (oil, coal etc…) Resources can either be Renewable of Non- Renewable
Renewable Resources –These can be replaced through natural processes (ex: trees) Non-renewable Resources –These can NOT be replaced through natural processes (ex: oil, metals, natural gas)
Urban Geography - The study of how people use space in cities. –Urban areas have expanded rapidly and now are home to about one-half of the world’s population. –Functions of cities are similar. –Land use patterns are unique to a place.
Cities –Areas with large populations that are also centers of business and culture.