Presentation on theme: "1 Probing the Nucleon Structure with Azimuthal Asymmetries --cos2φ distribution & Boer-Mulders F. Lingyan Zhu University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign."— Presentation transcript:
1 Probing the Nucleon Structure with Azimuthal Asymmetries --cos2φ distribution & Boer-Mulders F. Lingyan Zhu University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign FNAL E866/Nusea Collaboration Nov 21, 2006 at Jefferson Lab
2 Sea Asymmetry from Drell-Yan Processes Towell et al., Phys.Rev. D64 (2001) 052002 Drell-Yan enables us to measured dbar/ubar asymmetry precisely.
3 Angular Distribution in the Drell-Yan Process In the simple parton model: ( for massless quarks and measured relative to the annihilation axis) =1 and = =0
4 Conway et al., PRD39,92(1989) First-order QCD Corrections to Drell-Yan Increase the overall cross section by a K-factor~2. The Lam-Tung relation still hold (in any reference frame for massless quarks), reflecting the spin-1/2 nature of the quarks. Lam & Tung, PRD21,2712(1980) (Analog to Callan-Gross relation in DIS) The NLO correction at O( s 2 ) to the angular distribution is small. Mirkes & Ohnemus, PRD51,,4891(1995) With QCD corrections, the calculated cross section agrees with data.
5 Conway et al., PRD39,92(1989) E615 at Fermilab: 252 GeV π - + W Violation of the Lam-Tung Relation Also see NA10 results: 140/194 GeV π- + W, 286 GeV π- + W/d Z. Phys. C37, 545 (1988) The deviations from 1+cos 2 due to the soft-gluon resummation are less than 5%. Chiappatta & Bellac,ZPC32,521 (1986) The correction due to the intrinsic transverse momenta is estimated to be less than 0.05 Cleymans & Kuroda, PLB105,68(1981) Lam-Tung relation not affected by lowest order QCD correction even at small Q T. Boer & Wogelsang, hep-ph/0604177
6 Conway et al., PRD39,92(1989) E615 at Fermilab: 252 GeV π - + W Angular Distribution in the W Drell-Yan Process Also see NA10 results: 140/194 GeV π- + W, 286 GeV π- + W/d Z. Phys. C31, 513 (1986); Z. Phys. C37, 545 (1988)
7 Conway et al., PRD39,92(1989) E615 at Fermilab: 252 GeV π - + W Azimuthal cos2φ Distribution in the W Drell-Yan NA10 at CERN: 140/194/286 GeV π- + W Z. Phys. C37, 545 (1988)
8 Possible Explanations for the cos2φ Asymmetry The high twist effect. Brandenburg, Brodsky, Khoze & Muller, PRL73,939(1994). The nuclear distortion of hadronic projectile wavefunction, typically a spin-orbit effect occurring on the nuclear surface. Bianconi & Radici, JPG31,645(2005). The spin correlation due to nontrival QCD vacuum. Brandenburg, Nachtmann & Mirkes, Z. Phy. C60,697(1993); … The hadronic effect due to non-zero Boer-Mulders function h 1 ┴. Boer, PRD60,014012(1999); …
9 Higher Twist Effect? Higher twist effect leads to =-1 for low mass as x 1. Berger & Brodsky, PRL42, 940 (1979); Berger, ZPC4,289(1980) Higher twist effect in terms of pion bound state effect: Brandenburg, Brodsky, Khoze & Muller, PRL73,939(1994) High twist in terms of pion bound state effect is not enough.
10 Nuclear Effect? NA10 Z. Phys. C37, 545 (1988) Open: Deuterium Solid: Tungsten Nuclear effect should not be the dominant contribution.
11 The factorization-breaking spin correlation due to nontrivial QCD vacuum may fit the NA10 data at 194 GeV Brandenburg, Nachtmann & Mirkes, Z. Phy. C60,697(1993) The helicity flip in the instanton-induced contribution may lead to nontrivial vacuum and violation of the Lam-Tung relation. Boer,Brandenburg,Nachtmann&Utermann, EPC40,55(2005). Brandenburg,Ringwald&Uermann, hep-ph/0605234 This vacuum effect should be flavor blind. QCD Vacuum Effect 0 =0.17 m T =1.5
12 Leading-Twist Quark Distributions Survive k ┴ integration k ┴ - dependent, T-odd k ┴ - dependent, T-even
13 Boer-Mulders Function h 1 ┴ An spin-correlation approach in terms of h 1 ┴ can fit the NA10 data at 194 GeV. Boer, PRD60,014012(1999) On the base of quite general arguments, for |q T |<<Q(=m ), Salvo,hep-ph/0407208. 1 =0.5 m C =2.3 T =C H =1
14 Models for Boer-Mulders Function h 1 ┴ Initial-state gluon interaction can produce nonzero h 1 ┴ for the proton in the quark-scalar diquark model. In this model, h 1 ┴ =f 1T ┴. Boer,Brodsky&Hwang, PRD67,054003(2003). Twist 2 (as well as the kinematic twist 4) contribution in a parton- spectator framework Gamberg&Goldstein, hep-ph/0506127.
15 Pion Boer-Mulders Function Final-state interaction with one gluon exchange can produce nonzero h 1 ┴ for the pion in the quark-spectator-antiquark model with constant coupling g . Lu&Ma, PRD70,094044(2004). The quark-spectator-antiquark model with effective pion-quark- antiquark coupling as a dipole form factor Lu & Ma, hep-ph/0504184 The only model that can fit the NA10 data at different beam energy.
16 On the basis of time reversal arguments: f 1T ┴ (x,p T 2 )=0 Collins, NPB396, 161(1993) Final-state interaction from gluon exchange between the quark and the spectator lead to nonzero Sivers function. Brodsky, Hwang & Schmidt, PLB530, 99(2002). Final-state interaction can be reproduced by a prescription of the light-cone singularities or an extra gauge link at the spatial infinity for the parton distributions. Ji & Yuan, PLB543,66(2002). Add final state interaction to the time reversal arguments: f 1T ┴ (x,p T 2 ) SIDIS =-f 1T ┴ (x,p T 2 ) DY Collins, PLB536, 43(2002) Sivers Function
17 Models for Sivers Function f 1T ┴ Calculation fit with MIT bag model in the presence of final state interaction through one gluon exchange Yuan, PLB575, 45(2003)[hep-ph/0308157]. Calculation in a spectator model with axial-vector diquarks in the presence of gluon rescattering Bacchetta, Schaefer & Yang, PLB578,109(2004)[hep-ph/0309246] Calculation in a light-cone SU(6) quark-diquark model Lu & Ma, NPA741,200 (2004). - - These calculations are before HERMES’ transverse data.
18 An Intuitive Explanation of Sivers Asymmetry M. Burkardt, Phys. Rev. D66(2002)114005[hep-ph/0209179]. К u =1.67 К d =-2.03 Attractive FSI f 1T ┴,q К q <0 f 1T ┴,u f 1T ┴,d <0 Attractive FSI The quark distribution in transverse polarized nucleon is deformed because the superposition of translational and orbital motion misleads the photons in the x.
19 Sivers Function Extraction from HERMES Data Fits to the Hermes data“Prediction” of the Compass data Vogelsang and Yuan, Phys.Rev.D72(2005)054028 [hep-ph/0507266] Striking flavor dependence of the Sivers function
20 Comparing Sivers Functions from HERMES Ref. M.Anselmino et al, Phys.Rev.D72(2005)094007[hep-ph/0507181] Ref. W.Vogelsang & F.Yuan, Phys.Rev.D72(2005)054028[hep-ph/0507266] Ref. J.C.Collins et al, hep-ph/0510342 Satisfactory qualitative agreement between different models. M.Anselmino et al, hep-ph/0511017
21 Comparing Boer-Mulders Functions from Models (a)MIT bag model: F. Yuan, Phys. Lett. B575,45(2003). (b)Spectator model with axial-vector diquark: Bacchetta, Schaefer & Yang, Phys. Lett. B578,109(2004). (c)Large-N C limit, P.V. Pobylitsa, hep-ph/0301236 Knowledge of the Boer-Mulders functions is very poor. Z. Lu, B.Q. Ma and I. schmidt, Phys. Lett. B639(2006)494.
22 Unpolarized Semi-Inclusive DIS TWIST-2 Cahn Effect QED Modulation of f 1 D 1 term due to intrinsic transverse momentum. Anselmino et al., PRD71(2005) 074006 [hep-ph/0501196 ]. Add to 2(1-y+y 2 /2):
23 Prediction of cos2φ in SIDIS Barone, Lu and Ma, Phys. Lett. B632(2006)277[hep-ph/0512145 ]. The LT curve is proportional to h 1 ┴, estimated from πN Drell-Yan. LT HT(Cahn Effect) Predictions
24 Azimuthal Asymmetries in SIDIS from CLAS CLAS 5.7 GeV (preliminary) M.Osipenko e+Xe+X Significant cosΦ, cos2Ф observed at large P T with CLAS at 5.7 GeV V. Barone H. Avakian, Z.-E.Meziani,K.Joo and B.Seitz, JLab proposal PR12-06-112 Prediction for CLAS
25 FNAL E866/NuSea experiment Completed Data analysis: dbar/ubar sea asymmetry Drell-Yan cross section lambda for J/Ψ production lambda for upsilon production
26 Drell-Yan Cross Section from E866 J.C.Webb et al., hep-ex/0302019. The calculation with NLO world PDFs agrees with data.
27 Angular Distribution of E866 p-Cu Data J/ : = 0.069±0.004±0.08 Drell-Yan (M=4~7 GeV): = 0.98±0.04 T.H. Chang et al., PRL91, 211801 (2003) (1s), (2s+3s): plotted against P T and x P. Drell-Yan: (M=8.1~8.45,11.1~15.0 GeV) =1.008±0.016±0.020 C.N. Brown et al., PRL86, 2529 (2001)
28 Dimuon Mass Distribution Data used for cos2φ analysis: High Mass: dset7-39k (+ polarity) dset8-85k (+ polarity) dset11-25k (- polarity) Low Mass: dset5-68k (+ polarity) Towell et al., Phys.Rev. D64 (2001) 052002 Target: Proton, Deuterium
29 Comparison of data and simulation Blue: simulation Red: data (dset8)
30 In terms of Boer-Mulders function h 1 ┴ : ν(π - W µ + µ - X)~ valence h 1 ┴ (π) * valence h 1 ┴ (p) ν(pd µ+µ-X)~ valence h 1 ┴ (p) * sea h 1 ┴ (p) Azimuthal cos2Φ Distribution in pd Drell-Yan L.Y. Zhu,J.C. Peng, P. Reimer et al., hep-ex/0609005.
31 Full Angular Distribution in pd Drell-Yan L.Y. Zhu,J.C. Peng, P. Reimer et al., hep-ex/0609005. No significant violation of Lam-Tung relation in pd Drell-Yan.
32 Angular Distribution in E866 pp and pd Drell-Yan pp and pd Drell-Yan show similar angular distribution. Preliminary P T (GeV/c)
33 Modeling Sea Boer-Mulders Functions Group led by Z. Lu, B.Q. Ma and I. Schmidt Meson-baryon fluctuation model: Predictions depend on the choice of valence Boer-Mulders functions(I,II). Group led by L. Gamburg and G. Goldstein Two possible contributions to sea from the gauge link. Preliminary p (I) d (I) d (II) p (II) Probing the sea Boer-Mulders functions may constrain the valence ones.
34 Summary Large cos2 azimuthal asymmetry has been observed in unpolarized -induced Drell-Yan. The are a few possible explanations including the non-trivial vacuum effect and the non-zero Boer-Mulders function. The latter is related to the Sivers function. The unpolarized p-induced Drell-Yan data show only percent- level cos2φ azimuthal asymmetry. This may disfavor the flavor blind explanation such as vacuum effect. More data on unpolarized Drell-Yan will be availble from the future experiments at FNAL, RHIC with proton beam, COMPASS with pion beam and especially GSI, complementary to the SIDIS data at JLab and HERMES.
36 Hadronic Effect vs. QCD Vacuum Effect D.Boer, hep-ph/0511025
37 The Large-x Behavior of the Quark Distributions Survive k ┴ integration k ┴ -dependent, T-odd Brodsky & Yuan, hep-ph/0610236. k ┴ - dependent, T-even Sivers and Boer-Mulders functions are one power of (1-x) suppressed.
38 Vacuum Contribution to Sivers Function f 1T ┴ Sizable instanton-induced QCD vacuum contribution to the Sivers function, adopting MIT bag model for the quark wave functions. Cherednikov, D'Alesio, Kochelev & Murgia Phys.Lett.B642:39-47,2006 [hep-ph/0606238].' thin: instanton thick: one-gluon thin: HERMES thick: total
40 Unpolarized Semi-Inclusive DIS Ulrike Elschenbroich, HERMES thesis, 2006. TWIST-2 TWIST-3 Cahn Effect QED Modulation of f 1 D 1 term due to intrinsic transverse momentum. Anselmino et al., PRD71(2005) 074006 [hep-ph/0501196 ].